Enhanced Thermal-to-Flexible Phase Change Materials Based on Cellulose/Modified Graphene Composites for Thermal Management of Solar Energy.
2区 · 材料科学
作者: Yongqiang Qian ; Na Han ; Zongxuan Zhang ; Ruirui Cao ; Linli Tan ; Wei Li ; Xingxiang Zhang
The applications of phase change materials (PCMs) in some practical circumstances are currently limited due to the constant strong rigidity, poor thermal conductivity, and low photoabsorption property. Therefore, the design of flexibility-enhanced, highly efficient PCMs is greatly desirable and challenging. In this work, novel PCM composites (CPmG-x) with stable forms and thermally induced flexibility were successfully prepared by grafting the comblike poly(hexadecyl acrylate) polymer (PA16, phase change working substance) onto a cellulose support by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Modified graphene (GN16) was incorporated into the synthesized material to enhance its enthalpy, thermal conductivity, and physical strength. The prepared CPmG-x composites exhibit excellent softness and flexibility after phase transition of PA16. The addition of GN16 increases the thermal conductivity and enthalpy of CPmG-x materials to 1.32 W m-1 K-1 (9 wt % GN16) and 103 J g-1 (5 wt % GN16), respectively. Assessments of the solar-to-thermal energy conversion and storage efficiencies indicate that CPmG-x composites possess great potential for use in thermal energy management applications and solar energy collection systems.
2015-04-01·Journal of Immunological Methods4区 · 医学
Comparison of cell-based and non-cell-based assay platforms for the detection of clinically relevant anti-drug neutralizing antibodies for immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins
Anti-drug neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) formed due to unwanted immunogenicity of a therapeutic protein point towards a mature immune response. NAb detection is important in interpreting the therapeutic's efficacy and safety in vivo. In vitro cell-based NAb assays provide a physiological system for NAb detection, however are complex assays. Non-cell-based competitive ligand binding (CLB) approaches are also employed for NAb detection. Instead of cells, CLB assays use soluble receptor and conjugated reagents and are easier to perform, however have reduced physiological relevance. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of CLB assays to established cell-based assays to determine the former's ability to detect clinically relevant NAbs towards therapeutics that (i) acted as an agonist or (ii) acted as antagonists by binding to a target receptor. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the performance of cell-based and CLB NAb assays for erythropoietin (EPO) and two anti-receptor monoclonal antibodies (AMG-X and AMG 317). Clinically relevant NAb-positive samples identified previously by a cell-based assay were assessed in the corresponding CLB format(s). A panel of 12 engineered fully human anti-EPO monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested in both EPO NAb assay formats. Our results showed that the CLB format was (i) capable of detecting human anti-EPO MAbs of differing neutralizing capabilities and affinities and (ii) provided similar results as the cell-based assay for detecting NAbs in patient samples. The cell-based and CLB assays also behaved comparably in detecting NAbs in clinical samples for AMG-X. In the case of anti-AMG 317 NAbs, the CLB format failed to detect NAbs in more than 50% of the tested samples. We conclude that assay sensitivity, drug tolerance and the selected assay matrix played an important role in the inability of AMG 317 CLB assays to detect clinically relevant NAbs.