Rheology, Texture and Swallowing Characteristics of a Texture-Modified Dysphagia Food Prepared Using Common Supplementary Materials.
作者: Xin Wang ; Liyuan Rong ; Mingyue Shen ; Qiang Yu ; Yi Chen ; Jinwang Li ; Jianhua Xie
A dysphagia diet is a special eating plan. The development and design of dysphagia foods should consider both swallowing safety and food nutritional qualities. In this study, the effects of four food supplements, namely vitamins, minerals, salt and sugar, on swallowing characteristics, rheological and textural properties were investigated, and a sensory evaluation of dysphagia foods made with rice starch, perilla seed oil and whey isolate protein was carried out. The results showed that all the samples belonged to foods at level 4 (pureed) in The International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) framework, and exhibited shear thinning behavior, which is favorable for dysphagia patients. Rheological tests showed that the viscosity of a food bolus was increased with salt and sugar (SS), while it decreased with vitamins and minerals (VM) at shear rates of 50 s-1. Both SS and VM strengthened the elastic gel system, and SS enhanced the storage modulus and loss modulus. VM increased the hardness, gumminess, chewiness and color richness, but left small residues on the spoon. SS provided better water-holding, chewiness and resilience by influencing the way molecules were connected, promoting swallowing safety. SS brought a better taste to the food bolus. Dysphagia foods with both VM and 0.5% SS had the best sensory evaluation score. This study may provide a theoretical foundation for the creation and design of new dysphagia nutritional food products.
The neurotoxic branch of the kynurenine pathway is highly activated in the central nervous system of patients with pneumococcal meningitis.
作者: Larissa M Gomes Cassiano ; Danilo Bretas de Oliveira ; Talitah Michel Sanchez Candiani ; Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo ; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho ; Erna Geessien Kroon ; Markus Kohlhoff ; Roney Santos Coimbra
Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) causes excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAr), leading to cortical and hippocampal neuron death. As opposite, enteroviral meningitis is more frequently benign. The kynurenine (KYN) pathway is the major catabolic route of tryptophan (TRP) and some of its metabolites are agonists or antagonists of NMDAr.
In order to investigate the pathogen-specific patterns of KYN pathway modulation in the central nervous system of children with acute meningococcal (MM), pneumococcal (PM) or enteroviral (VM) meningitis, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of TRP, KYN, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUINA) were evaluated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (uHPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry. In addition, CSF levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were quantified by multi-analyte flow assay. The data was mined and integrated using statistical and machine learning methods.
The three forms of meningitis investigated herein up-regulated the neurotoxic branch of the KYN pathway within the intrathecal space. However, this response, represented by the concentration of QUINA, was six and nine times higher in PM patients compared to MM or VM, respectively. CSF levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were increased in MM and PM patients when compared to controls. In VM, CSF IL-6 and IL-10, but not TNF-α were increased compared to controls, although not reaching the high levels found in bacterial meningitis. No correlation was found between the concentrations or the ratios of any pair of KYN metabolites and any cytokine or standard cytochemical parameter tested.
CNS infection with meningococci, pneumococci, and enteroviruses intrathecally activate the KYN pathway, favoring its neurotoxic branch. However, in PM, higher CSF levels of QUINA, compared to MM and VM, may contribute to its poorer neurologic outcome.
Integrating Effect-Directed Analysis and Chemically Indicative Mass Spectral Fragmentation to Screen for Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds.
作者: Dan Loewenthal ; Shai Dagan ; Eyal Drug
Analytical chemists are often challenged to screen for bioactive compounds in complex matrices, sometimes without a priori knowledge of the exact compound of interest. Therefore, "flagging" techniques, highlighting common characteristics of bioactive compounds, are highly sought after. In this work, we demonstrate a double flagging method, where unknown organophosphorus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are "flagged" out of a complex matrix by the presence of organophosphorus-indicative ions as well as their acetylcholinesterase inhibition. This is accomplished by flagging the LC chromatographic retention time of phosphorus-indicative ions using accurate mass high-energy in-source CID products, and the retention time of acetylcholinesterase inhibiting compounds using a parallel microfractionation-based bioassay. We successfully apply this method to screen VX, VM, and RVX nerve agents as well as methomyl, a carbamate pesticide, out of soil and whole blood samples at low μM to sub-μM concentrations. This methodology can be easily extended to diverse chemical families and biological activities of interest.