Jieduquyuziyin prescription alleviates SLE complicated by atherosclerosis via promoting cholesterol efflux and suppressing TLR9/MyD88 activation.
作者: Yuanfang He ; Weiyu Tian ; Miao Zhang ; Haonan Qiu ; Haichang Li ; Xiaowei Shi ; Siyue Song ; Chengping Wen ; Juan Chen
Jieduquyuziyin prescription (JP), as a traditional Chinese medicine formula, is extensively applied to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Its prescription is based on clinical practice and an evidence-based application of traditional medicines. It is approved by use in Chinese hospitals as a clinical prescription that can be directly used.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The study aims to elucidate JP's efficacy on lupus-like disease combined with atherosclerosis and to explore its mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
To conduct in vivo experiments, we established a model of lupus-like disease with atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally with pristane. In addition, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and a TLR9 agonist (CpG-ODN2395) were utilized to examine the mechanism of JP on SLE combined with AS in RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro.
Results indicated that JP reduced hair loss and levels of the spleen index, maintained stable body weight, alleviated kidney damage in mice, and reduced the expression levels of urinary protein, autoantibodies, and inflammatory factors in serum. Furthermore, JP is effective at alleviating the lupus-like symptoms observed in mice. In mice, JP inhibited aortic plaque deposition, stimulated lipid metabolism, and increased the expression of genes that regulate cholesterol efflux, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1), scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). In vivo, JP inhibited the expression of the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-induced signaling pathway, which links TLR9/MyD88/NF-kB to the expression of subsequent inflammatory factors. Furthermore, JP inhibited the expression of TLR9 and MyD88 in vitro. In addition, the JP treatment effectively reduced foam cell formation in RAW264.7 macrophages by increasing the expression of ABCA1/G1, PPAR-γ and SR-BI.
JP played a therapeutic role in ApoE-/- mice with pristane-induced lupus-like diseases and AS, possibly through inhibition of TLR9/MyD88 signaling and promotion of cholesterol efflux.
Development and immunogenicity evaluation of porcine deltacoronavirus inactivated vaccine with different adjuvants in mice.
作者: Fu-Jie Zhao ; Lin-Tao Liu ; Zi Wang ; Nian-Xiang Wang ; Meng-Yao Ma ; Xin-Hao Jia ; Si-Jia Lu ; Yu-Qiang Xiang ; Lan-Lan Zheng ; Hui Hu
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in pigs of various ages, especially in suckling piglets, and there are no effective measures to prevent and control PDCoV currently. In this study, two adjuvants Al(OH)3 and ODN2395 working through different mechanisms were used to prepare inactivated PDCoV vaccines, and the immune effects of PDCoV inactivated vaccines were assessed in mice. From the results, we found that both PDCoV/Al(OH)3 vaccine and PDCoV/2395 vaccine could induce IgG and neutralizing antibodies with high levels in mice. At the same time, cytokines of IFN-γ, IL-4 and chemokine ligand of CXCL13 in serum were significantly increased after immunization, and reached the highest levels in PDCoV/2395 vaccine group, which suggested that PDCoV/2395 could promote the production of both Th1 and Th2 polarized cytokines. In addition, histopathological observations showed that vaccination helped mice resist PDCoV infection. These results indicated that both the two inactivated vaccines have good immune effects. Moreover, the PDCoV/2395 vaccine worked better than the PDCoV/Al(OH)3 vaccine for PDCoV/2395 having the good ability to induce both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. The PDCoV/2395 inactivated vaccine developed in this study might be an effective tool for the prevention of PDCoV infection.
2022-06-14·Cancer gene therapy
Regional infusion of a class C TLR9 agonist enhances liver tumor microenvironment reprogramming and MDSC reduction to improve responsiveness to systemic checkpoint inhibition.
作者: Chandra C Ghosh ; Kara R Heatherton ; Kyle P O' Connell ; Ian S Alexander ; Deborah A Greer ; Jason LaPorte ; Prajna Guha ; Bryan F Cox ; Steven C Katz
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expand in response to malignancy and suppress responsiveness to immunotherapy, including checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). Within the liver, MDSCs have unique immunosuppressive features. While TLR9 agonists have shown promising activities in enhancing CPI responsiveness in superficial tumors amenable to direct needle injection, clinical success for liver tumors with TLR9 agonists has been limited by delivery challenges. Here, we report that regional intravascular infusion of ODN2395 into mice with liver metastasis (LM) partially eliminated liver MDSCs and reprogrammed residual MDSC. TLR9 agonist regional infusion also induced an increase in the M1/M2 macrophage ratio. Enhanced TLR9 signaling was demonstrated by an increased activation of in NFκB (pP65) and production of IL6 compared with systemic infusion. Further, PBMC-derived human MDSCs express TLR9, and treatment with class C TLR9 agonists (ODN2395 and SD101) reduced the expansion of MDSC population. TLR9 stimulation induced MDSC apoptosis and increased the M1/M2 macrophage ratio. Regional TLR9 agonist infusion along with systemic anti-PD-1 therapy improved control of LM. With effective delivery, TLR9 agonists have the potential to favorably reprogram the liver TME through reduction of MDSCs and favorable macrophage polarization, which may improve responsiveness to systemic CPI therapy.