MER3101: MAS-1 Adjuvanted Antigen-specific Immunotherapeutic for Prevention and Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes
The study is a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, Phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trial. The objective of the trial is to determine if IBC adjuvanted with MAS-1 is safe and will favor tolerogenic pathways to restore immunologic balance and reverse T1D autoimmunity.
Autoantigen Vaccination in Human Type 1 Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (also called type 1 diabetes mellitus or T1DM) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. People with T1DM do not produce enough insulin, which is necessary for proper regulation of blood sugar levels. T1DM is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease is a disease in which the body's immune system attacks the body itself. In addition to regulating blood sugar, insulin may have the ability to protect cells in the pancreas from attack by the immune system. This study will evaluate whether an insulin-based vaccine can protect cells from autoimmune destruction. Study hypothesis: IFA-enhanced human insulin B-chain vaccination will lead to the arrest or slowing of the ongoing autoimmunity, and this will result in an appreciable difference in functioning B cell mass compared to the placebo treated group by the end of the study.
Insights from Bacteroides Species in Children with Type 1 Diabetes.
3区 · 生物学
作者: José Matos ; Isabel Matos ; Manuela Calha ; Pedro Santos ; Isabel Duarte ; Yameric Cardoso ; Maria Leonor Faleiro
In our previous study the enrichment of the intestinal proteome of type 1 diabetes (T1D) children with Bacteroides proteins was observed, which led us to our current study that aimed to isolate and characterize Bacteroides species from fecal samples of T1D and control children. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) was used for typing the isolated Bacteroides species. The antibiotic susceptibility and mucinolytic activity of the isolates was determined. The quantification of specific bacterial groups in the fecal samples was determined by qPCR. The ability to adhere and invade the human colonic cell line HT29-MTX-E12 of strains of P. dorei, B. uniformis and P. distasonis was determined and their whole genome sequencing was performed. The results showed similar numbers of Bacteroides species in T1D and control samples, but unique Bacteroides species and a higher recovery of P. distasonis from T1D samples was observed. Rep-PCR grouped the different Bacteroides species, but no discrimination by origin was achieved. T1D children showed a significant increase in Proteobacteria and a depletion in Lactobacillus sp. All tested P. dorei, B. uniformis and P. distasonis were able to adhere to HT29-MTX-E12 cells but significant differences (p < 0.05) in the ability to invade was observed. The highest ability to invade was exhibited by P. distasonis PtF D14MH1 and P. dorei PtFD16P1, while B. uniformis strains were unable to invade. The damage to tight junctions was also observed. The presence of Lactobacillus sp. inhibited the invasion ability of P. distasonis PtF D14MH1 but not P. dorei PtFD16P1. Sequences of agonist peptides of the human natural preproinsulin and the insulin B chain insB:9-23 peptide mimics were identified. The results reported in our study stresses the continued efforts required to clarify the link between T1D and gut microbiota.
2019-07-01·Journal of immunological methods4区 · 医学
Isolation and enrichment of mouse insulin-specific CD4+ T regulatory cells.
4区 · 医学
作者: Neda Đedović ; Verica Paunović ; Ivana Stojanović
Polyclonal T regulatory cells (Treg - CD4+CD25+CD127lowFoxp3+) are used in several protocols for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple sclerosis and graft-versus host disease in clinical trials. However, general opinion is that autoantigen-specific Treg could be more efficient in autoimmunity suppression due to their direct effect on pathogenic autoantigen-specific effector T cells. This study describes isolation and expansion of insulin-specific Treg in vitro. Insulin-specific Treg are uniformly distributed in lymphoid tissues however their number is extremely low. To enrich the proportion of insulin-specific Treg, pure CD4+ cells were co-cultured with insulin B chain peptide-loaded dendritic cells, isolated from mice that develop T1D spontaneously - NOD mice. Insulin-specific CD4+ cell expansion peaked after 48 h of incubation and was in favour of Treg. These cells were then sorted using insulin peptide-loaded MHC class II tetramers and cultured in vitro for 48 h in the presence of TCR stimulators, TGF-β and IL-2. The proportion of gained insulin-specific cells with T regulatory phenotype (CD4+CD25highCD127lowGITR+FoxP3+) was in average between 93% and 97%. These cells have shown potent in vitro suppressive effect on T effector cells, produced IL-10 and TGF-β and expressed PD-1 and CD39. Further proliferation of these insulin-specific Treg required the presence of dendritic cells, anti-CD3 antibody and IL-2. This study provides new, reproducible experimental design for the enrichment and expansion of insulin-specific Treg that can be used for the cell-based therapy of autoimmunity.
2019-01-01·Journal of diabetes research3区 · 医学
A Novel Liposome Formulation Carrying Both an Insulin Peptide and a Ligand for Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Induces Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells to Islets in Nonobese Diabetic Mice.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic β cells by autoantigen-reactive diabetogenic cells. Antigen-specific therapies using islet autoantigens for restoring immune tolerance have emerged as promising approaches for the treatment of T1D but have been unsuccessful in humans. Herein, we report that RGI-3100-iB, a novel liposomal formulation carrying both α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which is a representative ligand for invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, and insulin B chain 9-23 peptide, which is an epitope for CD4+ T cells, could induce the accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in islets in a peptide-dependent manner, followed by the remarkable prevention of diabetes onset in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. While multiple administrations of a monotherapy using either α-GalCer or insulin B peptide in a liposomal formulation was confirmed to delay/prevent T1D in NOD mice, RGI-3100-iB synergistically enhanced the prevention effect of each monotherapy and alleviated insulitis in NOD mice. Immunopathological analysis showed that Foxp3+ Tregs accumulated in the islets in RGI-3100-iB-treated mice. Cotransfer of diabetogenic T cells and splenocytes of NOD mice treated with RGI-3100-iB, but not liposomal α-GalCer encapsulating an unrelated peptide, to NOD-SCID mice resulted in the prevention of diabetes and elevation of Foxp3 mRNA expression in the islets. These data indicate that the migration of insulin B-peptide-specific Tregs to islet of NOD mice that are involved in the suppression of pathogenic T cells related to diabetes onset and progression could be enhanced by the administration of liposomes containing α-GalCer and insulin B peptide.