Recent evidence links the role of human glutaminyl cyclase (hQC) to the amyloidogenic process involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). hQC is a zinc enzyme present in neuronal tissue and its activity is responsible for the cyclization of N-terminal Gln or Glu β-amyloid peptides, leading to N-pyroglutamic acid peptides (pE-Aβ) that is probably a crucial event in the initiation and progress of the disease. Indeed, pE-containing peptides exhibit an elevated neurotoxicity and a tendency to aggregate. These observations render hQC inhibition an attractive strategy for developing new molecules active against AD. We present here the crystal structure of hQC in complex with SEN177, a newly designed molecule. The SEN177-binding mode to hQC differs from that of the known hQC inhibitors. SEN177 Ki on hQC is 20 nM, comparable or better than that of the most potent known hQC inhibitors PBD150 and PQ912. In addition, SEN177 already demonstrated relevant pharmacological properties in in vivo models of Huntington's disease. All these properties make SEN177 an important scaffold for developing molecules acting on AD and related diseases.
2012-12-01·Chemical Biology & Drug Design4区 · 医学
Probing secondary glutaminyl cyclase (QC) inhibitor interactions applying an in silico-modeling/site-directed mutagenesis approach: implications for drug development
4区 · 医学
作者: Koch, Birgit ; Buchholz, Mirko ; Wermann, Michael ; Heiser, Ulrich ; Schilling, Stephan ; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich
Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) catalyze the formation of pyroglutamate-modified amyloid peptides deposited in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Inhibitors of QC are currently in development as potential therapeutics. The crystal structures of the potent inhibitor PBD150 bound to human and murine QC (hQC, mQC) have been described recently. The binding modes of a dimethoxyphenyl moiety of the inhibitor are significantly different between the structures, which contrasts with a similar K(i) value. We show the conformation of PBD150 prone to disturbance by protein-protein interactions within the crystals. Semi-empirical calculations of the enzyme-inhibitor interaction within the crystal suggest significant differences in the dissociation constants between the binding modes. To probe for interactions in solution, a site-directed mutagenesis on hQC was performed. The replacement of F325 and I303 by alanine or asparagine resulted in a 800-fold lower activity of the inhibitor, whereas the exchange of S323 by alanine or valine led to a 20-fold higher activity of PBD150. The results provide an example of deciphering the interaction mode between a target enzyme and lead substance in solution, if co-crystallization does not mirror such interactions properly. Thus, the study might provide implications for rapid screening of binding modes also for other drug targets.
2012-09-18·Biochemistry3区 · 生物学
Crystal Structures of Glutaminyl Cyclases (QCs) from Drosophila melanogaster Reveal Active Site Conservation between Insect and Mammalian QCs
3区 · 生物学
作者: Koch, Birgit ; Kolenko, Petr ; Buchholz, Mirko ; Ruiz Carrillo, David ; Parthier, Christoph ; Wermann, Michael ; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich ; Reuter, Gunter ; Schilling, Stephan ; Stubbs, Milton T. ; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich
Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs), which catalyze the formation of pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) at the N-terminus of a variety of peptides and proteins, have attracted particular attention for their potential role in Alzheimer's disease. In a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) fruit fly model, oral application of the potent competitive QC inhibitor PBD150 was shown to reduce the burden of pGlu-modified Aβ. In contrast to mammals such as humans and rodents, there are at least three DmQC species, one of which (isoDromeQC) is localized to mitochondria, whereas DromeQC and an isoDromeQC splice variant possess signal peptides for secretion. Here we present the recombinant expression, characterization, and crystal structure determination of mature DromeQC and isoDromeQC, revealing an overall fold similar to that of mammalian QCs. In the case of isoDromeQC, the putative extended substrate binding site might be affected by the proximity of the N-terminal residues. PBD150 inhibition of DromeQC is roughly 1 order of magnitude weaker than that of the human and murine QCs. The inhibitor binds to isoDromeQC in a fashion similar to that observed for human QCs, whereas it adopts alternative binding modes in a DromeQC variant lacking the conserved cysteines near the active center and shows a disordered dimethoxyphenyl moiety in wild-type DromeQC, providing an explanation for the lower affinity. Our biophysical and structural data suggest that isoDromeQC and human QC are similar with regard to functional aspects. The two Dm enzymes represent a suitable model for further in-depth analysis of the catalytic mechanism of animal QCs, and isoDromeQC might serve as a model system for the structure-based design of potential AD therapeutics.