Antipsychotic-like effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulator neboglamine: An immunohistochemical and behavioral study in the rat
2区 · 医学
作者: Chiusaroli, Riccardo ; Garofalo, Paolo ; Espinoza, Stefano ; Neri, Elisa ; Caselli, Gianfranco ; Lanza, Marco
Neboglamine is a functional modulator of the glycine site on the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Dysfunction of this receptor has been associated with negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that neboglamine behaves as a potential antipsychotic. We compared the effects of neboglamine, D-serine, clozapine, and haloperidol on the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI), a marker of neuronal activation, in rat forebrain. We also studied the effects of these agents on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced behaviour in rats, a model predictive of potential antipsychotic activity. Neboglamine, like haloperidol and clozapine, significantly increased the number of FLI-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and lateral septal nucleus (3.2-, 4.8-, and 4.5-fold over control, respectively). Haloperidol dramatically increased FLI (390-fold over control) in the dorsolateral striatum, a brain region in which neboglamine and clozapine had no effect. The pattern of FLI induced by neboglamine closely matched that of d-serine, an endogenous agonist at the glycine site of NMDA receptors. Consistent with this finding, neboglamine restored NMDA-mediated neurotransmitter release in frontal cortex punches exposed to the NMDA antagonist PCP. In the behavioural model, all test compounds significantly inhibited PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. Unlike haloperidol and clozapine, neither neboglamine nor D-serine affected the basal levels of locomotor activity. Moreover, oral neboglamine dose-dependently inhibited both the hyperlocomotion and the frequency of rearing behaviour induced by PCP. These results, while confirming that the NMDA glycine site is a feasible target for activating the frontostriatal system, support the clinical evaluation of neboglamine as a treatment for schizophrenia.
1999-07-01·Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics3区 · 医学
Activity of putative cognition enhancers in kynurenate test performed with human neocortex slices
3区 · 医学
作者: Pittaluga, Anna ; Pattarini, Roberto ; Andrioli, Gian Carlo ; Viola, Concetta ; Munari, Claudio ; Raiteri, Maurizio
Some cognition enhancers were previously shown to potently prevent antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked release of norepinephrine (NE) brought about in slices of rat hippocampus by kynurenic acid, an endogenous NMDA receptor blocker. We have examined the impact of putative nootropic agents in the kynurenate test performed with slices of human cerebral cortex from patients undergoing neurosurgery. In slices of human neocortex, local application of NMDA evoked release of [3H]NE; the effect of NMDA was antagonized by several NMDA receptor antagonists, including kynurenic acid. The antagonism of the NMDA-evoked [3H]NE release produced by 300 microM kynurenate was potently (EC50 <10 microM) prevented by most of the nootropics tested, including aniracetam, oxiracetam, D-cycloserine, and the glutamate analog CR 2249 (but not its enantiomer CR 2361). Nicotine or tacrine (up to 10 microM) did not show any effect in the kynurenate test. Nicotine (30-100 microM) itself increased the release of [3H]NE; interestingly, the nicotine-evoked overflow was blocked not only by the nicotin receptor antagonist mecamylamine but also by NMDA receptor antagonists, suggesting an indirect mechanism mediated by glutamate/aspartate release. To conclude, the similarities between the data obtained here with human neocortex slices and those previously obtained in the rat indicate that the kynurenate test performed with rat brain slices may represent a useful biochemical assay to study cognition-enhancing drugs.
1997-10-01·Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics3区 · 医学
The "kynurenate test," a biochemical assay for putative cognition enhancers
3区 · 医学
作者: Pittaluga, Anna ; Vaccari, Daniella ; Raiteri, Maurizio
Some putative cognition enhancers (oxiracetam, aniracetam and D-cycloserine) were previously shown to prevent the kynurenic acid antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked norepinephrine (NE) release in rat hippocampal slices. This functional in vitro assay was further characterized in the present work. D-Serine, a glutamate coagonist at the NMDA receptor glycine site, concentration-dependently (EC50 approximately 0.1 microM) prevented the kynurenate (100 microM) block of the NMDA (100 microM)-evoked [3H]NE release. L-Serine was ineffective up to 10 microM. The gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABA[B]) receptor antagonist CGP 36742, reported to improve cognitive performance, potently prevented the kynurenate antagonism. The activity of CGP 36742 (1 microM) appeared to be unaffected by 10 microM (-)-baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist; furthermore, CGP 52432, a GABA(B) antagonist more potent than CGP 36742, but reportedly devoid of nootropic properties, was inactive in the "kynurenate test." The novel putative cognition enhancer CR2249, but not its enantiomer CR2361, also potently prevented the kynurenate antagonism. In contrast, linopirdine, nicotine and tacrine were inactive. In rat hippocampal synaptosomes glycine and D-cycloserine enhanced the NMDA-evoked [3H]NE release, whereas oxiracetam and CR2249 did not. These four compounds were all similarly effective in preventing kynurenate antagonism, both in slices and in synaptosomes. The NMDA potentiation caused by glycine (0.1-100 microM) was not affected by 100 microM oxiracetam, which suggested that drugs active in the "kynurenate test" may bind to sites different from the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. To conclude, the "kynurenate test" is an in vitro assay useful in the identification and characterization of putative cognition enhancers acting via NMDA receptors.