Rational design of an influenza-COVID-19 chimeric protective vaccine with S-RBD and HA-stalk.
作者: Yulei Li ; Peipei Liu ; Tianjiao Hao ; Sheng Liu ; Xi Wang ; Yufeng Xie ; Ke Xu ; Wenwen Lei ; Cheng Zhang ; Pu Han ; Ying Li ; Xiyue Jin ; Yu Huan ; Yafei Lu ; Rong Zhang ; Xiaoyan Li ; Xin Zhao ; Kun Xu ; Pu Liao ; Xuancheng Lu ; Yuhai Bi ; Hao Song ; Guizhen Wu ; Baoli Zhu ; George F Gao
Highly contagious respiratory illnesses like influenza and COVID-19 pose serious risks to public health. A two-in-one vaccine would be ideal to avoid multiple vaccinations for these diseases. Here, we generated a chimeric receptor binding domain of the spike protein (S-RBD) and hemagglutinin (HA)-stalk-based vaccine for both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses. The S-RBD from SARS-CoV-2 Delta was fused to the headless HA from H1N1 (H1Delta), creating a chimera that forms trimers in solution. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the chimeric protein complexed with the RBD-targeting CB6 and the HA-stalk-targeting CR9114 antibodies shows that the trimeric protein is stable and accessible for neutralizing antibody binding. Immunization with the vaccine elicited high and long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and effectively protected mice against the challenges of lethal H1N1 or heterosubtypic H5N8, as well as the SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron BA.2 variants. Overall, this study offers a two-in-one universal vaccine design to combat infections caused by both SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and influenza viruses.
2023-05-22·Materials (Basel, Switzerland)
Maximizing the Recycling of Iron Ore Pellets Fines Using Innovative Organic Binders.
作者: Karthik Manu ; Elsayed Mousa ; Hesham Ahmed ; Mohamed Elsadek ; Weihong Yang
This research work focuses on the practicality of using organic binders for the briquetting of pellet fines. The developed briquettes were evaluated in terms of mechanical strength and reduction behavior with hydrogen. A hydraulic compression testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis were incorporated into this work to investigate the mechanical strength and reduction behavior of the produced briquettes. Six organic binders, namely Kempel, lignin, starch, lignosulfonate, Alcotac CB6, and Alcotac FE14, in addition to sodium silicate, were tested for the briquetting of pellet fines. The highest mechanical strength was achieved using sodium silicate, Kempel, CB6, and lignosulfonate. The best combination of binder to attain the required mechanical strength even after 100% reduction was found to be a combination of 1.5 wt.% of organic binder (either CB6 or Kempel) with 0.5 wt.% of inorganic binder (sodium silicate). Upscaling using an extruder gave propitious results in the reduction behavior, as the produced briquettes were highly porous and attained pre-requisite mechanical strength.
Induction of Skeletal Muscle Injury by Intramuscular Injection of Cardiotoxin in Mouse.
作者: Xin Fu ; Sheng Li ; Minzhi Jia ; Wenjun Yang ; Ping Hu
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and has a tremendous capability to regenerate in response to muscle injuries and diseases. Induction of acute muscle injury is a common method to study muscle regeneration in vivo. Cardiotoxin (CTX) belongs to the family of snake venom toxins and is one of the most common reagents to induce muscle injury. Intramuscular injection of CTX causes overwhelming muscle contraction and lysis of myofibers. The induced acute muscle injury triggers muscle regeneration, allowing in-depth studies on muscle regeneration. This protocol describes a detailed procedure of intramuscular injection of CTX to induce acute muscle injury that could be also applied in other mammalian models.