Perioperative Cognitive Protection - Cognitive Exercise and Cognitive Reserve (The Neurobics Trial)
Many individuals experience an acute change in thinking and reasoning skills after surgery. This is called post-operative delirium (PD). PD symptoms typically start 1-3 days after surgery. Advanced age has been identified as a risk factor for PD. The purpose of this study is to determine if performing mental exercise, before surgery, will help reduce post-surgery memory and thinking problems. Assuming a 30% incidence of PD and proposed 50% reduction of PD in the intervention group (15% incidence), a total of 242 patients (1:1 ratio, 121 in each group) will achieve 80% power to detect 50% reduction using chi-square test at a 5% type I error rate. Assuming approximately 1/3 of consented patients either fail screening or do not complete the study after consent, we expect to consent 358 patients. At least 8 days before surgery, subjects complete a series of questionnaires to assess baseline cognition level (or thinking ability) and status of overall well-being. At the completion of the screening visit, qualifying subjects are randomized into two groups: Participants randomized into the Cognitive Exercise group are expected to complete tablet-based brain games provided by Lumosity. These subjects are given a handheld tablet for the duration of the preoperative period. Participants in this group are expected to complete a minimum of 10 hours within at least 8 days prior to surgery. Participants randomized into the Normal Activity group are encouraged to carry out their baseline daily activities, and do not have any study-related cognitive exercise expectations before surgery. These subjects still complete the same questionnaires and assessments as the Cognitive Exercise group throughout the study, however, are asked not to alter their normal daily routine of mental exertion (i.e. watching television, reading, puzzles, etc.) and are not permitted to subscribe to Lumosity while in the research study. On the day of surgery, a baseline delirium evaluation (CAM - Confusion Assessment Method) is taken before surgery. During surgery, research personnel monitor vital signs and medications given. After surgery, another CAM evaluation is taken in the post-operative recovery room. Throughout the subject's hospital stay, pain levels and medication usage are recorded. The CAM and MDAS (Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale) are used to identify and determine severity of PD. The evaluations are given twice daily, at at 7:30AM ± 1.5 hrs and 6:30PM ± 1.5 hrs, for 7 days or until hospital discharge (whichever comes first). The Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale (PQRS) is used each post-operative day at 6:30PM ± 1.5 hrs until discharge, and completed over the phone on POD 7 if patient discharged. The PQRS is also administered over the phone on POD 30 and POD 90.
Communicating Emotion: Vocal Expression of Linguistic and Emotional Prosody in Children With Mild to Profound Hearing Loss Compared With That of Normal Hearing Peers.
作者: Tjeerd J de Jong ; Marieke M Hakkesteegt ; Marc P van der Schroeff ; Jantien L Vroegop
Emotional prosody is known to play an important role in social communication. Research has shown that children with cochlear implants (CCIs) may face challenges in their ability to express prosody, as their expressions may have less distinct acoustic contrasts and therefore may be judged less accurately. The prosody of children with milder degrees of hearing loss, wearing hearing aids, has sparsely been investigated. More understanding of the prosodic expression by children with hearing loss, hearing aid users in particular, could create more awareness among healthcare professionals and parents on limitations in social communication, which awareness may lead to more targeted rehabilitation. This study aimed to compare the prosodic expression potential of children wearing hearing aids (CHA) with that of CCIs and children with normal hearing (CNH).
In this prospective experimental study, utterances of pediatric hearing aid users, cochlear implant users, and CNH containing emotional expressions (happy, sad, and angry) were recorded during a reading task. Of the utterances, three acoustic properties were calculated: fundamental frequency (F0), variance in fundamental frequency (SD of F0), and intensity. Acoustic properties of the utterances were compared within subjects and between groups.
A total of 75 children were included (CHA: 26, CCI: 23, and CNH: 26). Participants were between 7 and 13 years of age. The 15 CCI with congenital hearing loss had received the cochlear implant at median age of 8 months. The acoustic patterns of emotions uttered by CHA were similar to those of CCI and CNH. Only in CCI, we found no difference in F0 variation between happiness and anger, although an intensity difference was present. In addition, CCI and CHA produced poorer happy-sad contrasts than did CNH.
The findings of this study suggest that on a fundamental, acoustic level, both CHA and CCI have a prosodic expression potential that is almost on par with normal hearing peers. However, there were some minor limitations observed in the prosodic expression of these children, it is important to determine whether these differences are perceptible to listeners and could affect social communication. This study sets the groundwork for more research that will help us fully understand the implications of these findings and how they may affect the communication abilities of these children. With a clearer understanding of these factors, we can develop effective ways to help improve their communication skills.
2023-02-07·Molecular cancer therapeutics
Griseofulvin Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells and Activates cGAS.
作者: Xing Wang ; Natasha Raman ; Ghali Lemtiri-Chlieh ; Jinhee Chang ; Shreya Jagtap ; Dipanwita Dutta Chowdhury ; Matthew Ballew ; Francesca Anna Carrieri ; Triet Nguyen ; Katriana Nugent ; Travis Peck ; Michelle S Levine ; Aaron Chan ; Christine Lam ; Reem Malek ; Tung Hoang ; Ryan Phillips ; ZhuoAn Cheng ; Kekoa Taparra ; Nick Connis ; Christine L Hann ; Andrew Holland ; Phuoc T Tran ; Audrey Lafargue ; Hailun Wang
Extra copies of centrosomes are frequently observed in cancer cells. To survive and proliferate, cancer cells have developed strategies to cluster extra-centrosomes to form bipolar mitotic spindles. The aim of this study was to investigate whether centrosome clustering (CC) inhibition (CCi) would preferentially radiosensitize non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Griseofulvin (GF; FDA approved treatment) inhibits CC, and combined with radiation therapy (RT) resulted in a significant increase in the number of NSCLC cells with multipolar spindles, and decreased cell viability and colony formation ability in vitro. In vivo, GF treatment was well tolerated by mice, and the combined therapy of GF and RT resulted in a significant tumor growth delay. Both GF and RT treatment also induced the generation of micronuclei (MN) in vitro and in vivo and activated cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in NSCLC cells. A significant increase in downstream cGAS-STING pathway activation was seen after combination treatment in A549 radioresistant cells that was dependent on cGAS. In conclusion, GF increased RT efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models in vitro and in vivo. This effect may be associated with the generation of MN and the activation of cGAS. These data suggest that the combination therapy of CCi, RT and immunotherapy could be a promising strategy to treat NSCLC.
Centrosome Amplification Is a Potential Molecular Target in Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
作者: Meiyun Guo ; Jenna Rever ; Phuong N U Nguyen ; Neha M Akella ; Gregor S D Reid ; Christopher A Maxwell
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of cancer in children, with most cases arising from fetal B cell precursor, termed B-ALL. Here, we use immunofluorescence analysis of B-ALL cells to identify centrosome amplification events that require the centrosome clustering pathway to successfully complete mitosis. Our data reveals that primary human B-ALL cells and immortal B-ALL cell lines from both human and mouse sources show defective bipolar spindle formation, abnormal mitotic progression, and cell death following treatment with centrosome clustering inhibitors (CCI). We demonstrate that CCI-refractory B-ALL cells exhibit markers for increased genomic instability, including DNA damage and micronuclei, as well as activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway. Our analysis of cGAS knock-down B-ALL clones implicates cGAS in the sensitivity of B-ALL cells to CCI treatment. Due to its integral function and specificity to cancer cells, the centrosome clustering pathway presents a powerful molecular target for cancer treatment while mitigating the risk to healthy cells.