The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to examine the effects of onion extract containing concentrated cysteine sulfoxides on improving sleep quality. In total, 30 healthy men and women who were dissatisfied with their sleep consumed the test food sample (onion extract tablets) for 5 days. The delta power during non-rapid eye movement sleep and the delta power per minute in the first sleep cycle increased significantly with the intake of onion extract containing concentrated cysteine sulfoxides compared with the intake of placebo. A significant decline in sleep latency was also observed. Salivary α-amylase level, a stress indicator, decreased significantly with the intake of onion extract containing concentrated cysteine sulfoxides compared with the intake of placebo. These findings indicate that onion extract containing concentrated cysteine sulfoxides alleviates stress, improves the quality of sleep and promotes smooth transition into sleep.
2014-01-01·PLoS One3区 · 综合性期刊
Cysteine peptidases as schistosomiasis vaccines with inbuilt adjuvanticity
3区 · 综合性期刊
作者: El Ridi, Rashika ; Tallima, Hatem ; Selim, Sahar ; Donnelly, Sheila ; Cotton, Sophie ; Gonzales Santana, Bibiana ; Dalton, John P.
Schistosomiasis is caused by several worm species of the genus Schistosoma and afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and sub-tropical countries in the developing world. Present disease control depends on treatment with the only available drug praziquantel. No vaccine exists despite the intense search for molecular candidates and adjuvant formulations over the last three decades. Cysteine peptidases such as papain and Der p 1 are well known environmental allergens that sensitize the immune system driving potent Th2-responses. Recently, we showed that the administration of active papain to mice induced significant protection (P<0.02, 50%) against an experimental challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Since schistosomes express and secrete papain-like cysteine peptidases we reasoned that these could be employed as vaccines with inbuilt adjuvanticity to protect against these parasites. Here we demonstrate that sub-cutaneous injection of functionally active S. mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1), or a cathepsin L from a related parasite Fasciola hepatica (FhCL1), elicits highly significant (P<0.0001) protection (up to 73%) against an experimental challenge worm infection. Protection and reduction in worm egg burden were further increased (up to 83%) when the cysteine peptidases were combined with other S. mansoni vaccine candidates, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (SG3PDH) and peroxiredoxin (PRX-MAP), without the need to add chemical adjuvants. These studies demonstrate the capacity of helminth cysteine peptidases to behave simultaneously as immunogens and adjuvants, and offer an innovative approach towards developing schistosomiasis vaccines.
Three triticale cDNAs encoding inhibitors of cysteine endopeptidases, belonging to phytocystatins, have been identified and designated as TrcC-1, TrcC-4 and TrcC-5. Full-length cDNAs of TrcC-1 (617 bp) and TrcC-4 (940 bp), as well as a fragment of TrcC-5 cDNA (369 bp), were obtained. A high-level identity of the deduced amino acid sequence of TrcCs with other known phytocystatins, especially with wheat and barley, has been observed. Moreover, the presence of conserved domain, containing the G and W residues, the sequence of QxVxG and the sequence of LARFAV, characteristic for plant cysteine endopeptidase inhibitors, has been noted. The profiles of TrcC-1 and TrcC-5 mRNA levels in the developing seeds of two triticale cultivars that differ in their resistance to preharvest sprouting (Zorro and Disco) were similar. However, the expression of TrcC-4 was, higher in the developing seeds, and in the scutellum of germinating seeds of a cultivar more resistant to preharvest sprouting (Zorro) than in the less resistant (Disco). Additionally, the expression of TrcC-4 remained longer in developing seeds of Zorro as compared to Disco. The performed studies suggest that TrcC-4 might have an influence on the higher resistance of Zorro cultivar to preharvest sprouting.