Effect of the addition of maltodextrin on metabolites and microbial population during kimchi fermentation
作者: Park, Sung Jin ; Lee, Min Jung ; Choi, Yun-Jeong ; Lee, Mi-Ai ; Min, Sung Gi ; Seo, Hye-Young ; Chung, Young-Bae ; Yang, Ji-Hee ; Park, Sung Hee
Gelatinized starch sauce, one of the sub-ingredients have been widely used in kimchi for their roles in increasing viscosity of kimchi seasoning, and fermentation. Gelatinized glutinous rice (GGR), which is one of the most used starch sources in kimchi preparation. However, GGR is accelerated to the fermentation process but lead to a reduction in the shelf life of the kimchi. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using maltodextrin (MD) as a novel starch source instead of GGR to slow down the rate of kimchi fermentation. The properties of the kimchi with MD and GGR fermentation (free sugar content, organic acid content, pH, and acidity) as well as their microbial growth rates after 12 days of fermentation were compared. After fermentation of 12 days, the free sugar of GGR-kimchi (GGRK) increased more rapidly than those of MD-kimchi (MDK), while higher sugar alcohol (mannitol) and organic acid contents were observed for GGRK than for MDK. Furthermore, initial aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts were higher for GGRK than for MDK. These results indicate that fermentation proceeds at a slower rate in MDK than in GGRK, and they will provide a basis for further research into storage of kimchi.
The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-023-05742-y.
2023-06-02·CNS neuroscience & therapeutics
Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis reveals enhanced non-canonical neurotrophic factor signaling in the subacute phase of traumatic brain injury.
作者: Xuecheng Qiu ; Yaling Guo ; Ming-Feng Liu ; Bingge Zhang ; Jingzhen Li ; Jian-Feng Wei ; Meng Li
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-term disability in young adults and induces complex neuropathological processes. Cellular autonomous and intercellular changes during the subacute phase contribute substantially to the neuropathology of TBI. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we explored the dysregulated cellular signaling during the subacute phase of TBI.
Single-cell RNA-sequencing data (GSE160763) of TBI were analyzed to explore the cell-cell communication in the subacute phase of TBI. Upregulated neurotrophic factor signaling was validated in a mouse model of TBI. Primary cell cultures and cell lines were used as in vitro models to examine the potential mechanisms affecting signaling.
Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that microglia and astrocytes were the most affected cells during the subacute phase of TBI. Cell-cell communication analysis demonstrated that signaling mediated by the non-canonical neurotrophic factors midkine (MDK), pleiotrophin (PTN), and prosaposin (PSAP) in the microglia/astrocytes was upregulated in the subacute phase of TBI. Time-course profiling showed that MDK, PTN, and PSAP expression was primarily upregulated in the subacute phase of TBI, and astrocytes were the major source of MDK and PTN after TBI. In vitro studies revealed that the expression of MDK, PTN, and PSAP in astrocytes was enhanced by activated microglia. Moreover, MDK and PTN promoted the proliferation of neural progenitors derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and neurite growth in iPSC-derived neurons, whereas PSAP exclusively stimulated neurite growth.
The non-canonical neurotrophic factors MDK, PTN, and PSAP were upregulated in the subacute phase of TBI and played a crucial role in neuroregeneration.
2022-11-21·Journal of periodontal research
Expression of the pleiotrophin-midkine axis in a sheep tooth socket model of bone healing.
Resorption of alveolar bone after tooth extraction is a common problem often requiring bone grafting. The success of the grafting procedures is dependent on multiple factors including the presence of growth factors. This is the first in vivo study to investigate the role of the pleiotrophin family of cytokines in alveolar bone regeneration. This research investigated the role of the pleiotrophin-midkine (PTN-MDK) axis during osteogenesis, with and without a grafting material, after tooth extraction in a sheep model.
Thirty Romney-cross ewes were anesthetized, and all premolar teeth on the right side were extracted. The sockets were randomized to controls sites with no treatment and test sites with Bio-Oss® graft material and Bio-Gide® membrane. Samples were harvested after sacrificing animals 4, 8, and 16 weeks post-grafting (n = 10 per time-point). Tissue for qRT2 -PCR gene analysis was recovered from the socket next to the first molar using a trephine (Ø = 2 mm). Each socket was fixed, decalcified, paraffin-embedded, and sectioned. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to localize both PTN and MDK along with their receptors, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z1 (PTPRZ1), ALK receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK), and notch receptor 2 (NOTCH2).
Within the healing sockets, high expression of genes for PTN, MDK, NOTCH2, and ALK was found at all time-points and in both grafted and non-grafted sites, while PTPRZ1 was only expressed at low levels. The relative gene expression of the PTN family of cytokines was not statistically different at the three time-points between test and control groups (p > .05). Immunohistochemistry found PTN and MDK in association with new bone, NOTCH2 in the connective tissue, and PTPRZ1 and ALK in association with cuboidal osteoblasts involved in bone formation.
The PTN-MDK axis was highly expressed in both non-grafted and grafted sockets during osteogenesis in a sheep model of alveolar bone regeneration with no evidence that grafting significantly affected expression. The activation of NOTCH2 and PTPRZ1 receptors may be important during bone regeneration in vivo. The discovery of the PTN-MDK axis as important during alveolar bone regeneration is novel and opens up new avenues of research into these stably expressed highly active cytokines. Growth factor supplementation with PTN and/or MDK during healing may be an approach for enhanced regeneration or to initiate healing where delayed.