Efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of herpes zoster vaccines in adults aged 50 and older: systematic review and network meta-analysis.
1区 · 医学
作者: Andrea C Tricco ; Wasifa Zarin ; Roberta Cardoso ; Areti-Angeliki Veroniki ; Paul A Khan ; Vera Nincic ; Marco Ghassemi ; Rachel Warren ; Jane P Sharpe ; Andrea V Page ; Sharon E Straus
To compare the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of the herpes zoster live attenuated vaccine with the herpes zoster adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine or placebo for adults aged 50 and older.
Systematic review with bayesian meta-analysis and network meta-analysis.
Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2017), grey literature, and reference lists of included studies.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION:
Experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies that compared the live attenuated vaccine with the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine, placebo, or no vaccine in adults aged 50 and older. Relevant outcomes were incidence of herpes zoster (primary outcome), herpes zoster ophthalmicus, post-herpetic neuralgia, quality of life, adverse events, and death.
27 studies (22 randomised controlled trials) including 2 044 504 patients, along with 18 companion reports, were included after screening 2037 titles and abstracts, followed by 175 full text articles. Network meta-analysis of five randomised controlled trials found no statistically significant differences between the live attenuated vaccine and placebo for incidence of laboratory confirmed herpes zoster. The adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine, however, was statistically superior to both the live attenuated vaccine (vaccine efficacy 85%, 95% credible interval 31% to 98%) and placebo (94%, 79% to 98%). Network meta-analysis of 11 randomised controlled trials showed the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine to be associated with statistically more adverse events at injection sites than the live attenuated vaccine (relative risk 1.79, 95% credible interval 1.05 to 2.34; risk difference 30%, 95% credible interval 2% to 51%) and placebo (5.63, 3.57 to 7.29 and 53%, 30% to 73%, respectively). Network meta-analysis of nine randomised controlled trials showed the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine to be associated with statistically more systemic adverse events than placebo (2.28, 1.45 to 3.65 and 20%, 6% to 40%, respectively).
Using the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine might prevent more cases of herpes zoster than using the live attenuated vaccine, but the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine also carries a greater risk of adverse events at injection sites.
2015-08-26·Vaccine3区 · 医学
In vitro and in vivo growth alter the population dynamic and properties of a Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine.
3区 · 医学
作者: Sarah M Connaughton ; Jun X Wheeler ; Eva Vitková ; Philip Minor ; Silke Schepelmann
Mumps vaccines are live attenuated viruses. They are known to vary in effectiveness, degree of attenuation and adverse event profile. However, the underlying reasons are poorly understood. We studied two closely related mumps vaccines which originate from the same attenuated Jeryl Lynn-5 strain but have different efficacies. Jeryl Lynn-Canine Kidney (JL-CK), produced on primary canine kidney cells, is less effective than RIT4385, which is produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts. JL-CK and RIT4385 could be distinguished by a number of in vitro and in vivo properties. JL-CK produced heterogeneous, generally smaller plaques than RIT4385, but gave 100-fold higher titres when grown in cells and showed a higher degree of hydrocephalus formation in neonatal rat brains. Sanger sequencing of JL-CK identified 14 regions of heterogeneity throughout the genome. Plaque purification of JL-CK demonstrated the presence of five different Jeryl Lynn-5 variants encompassing the 14 mutations. One JL-CK mutation was associated with a small plaque phenotype, the effects of the others in vitro or in vivo were less clear. Only 4% of the JL-CK population corresponded to the parental Jeryl Lynn-5 strain. Next generation sequencing of JL-CK and virus before and after growth in cell lines or neonatal rat brains showed that propagation in vitro or in vivo altered the population dramatically. Our findings indicate that growth of JL-CK in primary canine kidney cells resulted in the selection of a mixture of mumps virus variants that have different biological properties compared to the parent Jeryl Lynn-5 virus. We also report three previously unknown heterogenic regions within the N gene of the RIT4385 vaccine.
2009-02-05·Chinese Medical Journal (Beijing, China, English Edition)3区 · 医学
Evaluation of live attenuated S79 mumps vaccine effectiveness in mumps outbreaks: a matched case-control study
3区 · 医学
作者: Fu, Chuan-xi ; Nie, Jun ; Liang, Jian-hua ; Wang, Ming
Mumps virus infection is a potentially serious viral infection of childhood and early adulthood. In China, live attenuated S(79) mumps vaccine has been licensed for pediatric use since 1990. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of live attenuated S(79) mumps vaccine against clinical mumps in outbreaks.
Cases were selected from mumps outbreaks in schools in Guangzhou between 2004 and 2005. Each case was matched by gender, age and classroom. Vaccination information was obtained from Children's EPI Administrative Computerized System. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated for 1 or 2 doses of S(79) vaccine with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
One hundred and ninety-four cases and 194 controls were enrolled into the study. VE of the S(79) mumps vaccine for 1 dose versus 0 confer protection 80.4% (95% CI, 60.0%-90.4%) and VEs against mumps in outbreaks for 1 dose of mumps vaccine are similar among those children aged 4-9 years and aged over 10 years old.
The live attenuated S(79) mumps vaccine can be effective in preventing clinical mumps outbreaks.