Design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling studies of TIBO-like cyclic sulfones as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors
3区 · 医学
作者: Di Santo, Roberto ; Costi, Roberta ; Artico, Marino ; Ragno, Rino ; Lavecchia, Antonio ; Novellino, Ettore ; Gavuzzo, Enrico ; La Torre, Francesco ; Cirilli, Roberto ; Cancio, Reynel ; Maga, Giovanni
TIBO- and TBO-like sulfone derivatives 1 and 2 were designed, synthesized, and tested for their ability to block the replication cycle of HIV-1 in infected cells. The anti-HIV-1 activities of sulfones 3, which were intermediates in the syntheses of 1 and 2, were also evaluated. Surprisingly, the sulfone analogues of TIBO R82913 (compounds 1) were inactive, whereas interesting results were obtained for truncated derivatives 2. Compound 2 w was the most potent among this series in cell-based assays (EC50=0.07 microM, CC50>200 microM, SI>2857). It was twofold less potent than R82913, but more selective. An X-ray crystallographic analysis was carried out to establish the absolute configuration of 2 w and its enantiomer 2 x, which were obtained by semipreparative HPLC of 2 v, one of the most potent racemates. Compounds 1-3 were proven to target HIV-1 RT. In fact, representative derivatives inhibited recombinant HIV-1 RT in vitro at concentrations similar to those active in cell-based assays. 3D QSAR studies and docking simulations were developed on TIBO- and TBO-like sulfone derivatives to rationalize their anti-HIV-1 potencies and to predict the activity of novel untested sulfone derivatives. Predictive 3D QSAR models were obtained with a receptor-based alignment by docking of TIBO- and TBO-like derivatives into the NNBS of RT.
1998-05-01·Journal of Virology2区 · 医学
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype F reverse transcriptase sequence and drug susceptibility
We sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed the reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of the pol genes of 14 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from Romanian patients, which were classified as subtype F on the basis of env gene structure. The RT sequences showed that the strains clustered phylogenetically and were equidistant from other HIV-1 subtypes as shown by the neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods, allowing us to define HIV-1 subtype F according to the pol classification. The subtype F RT sequences differed from reported group M RT sequences by 10.94% (for nucleotides) and 7.6% (for amino acids). Phenotypic analysis of subtype F susceptibility to three classes of antiretroviral compounds showed an increase in the 50% inhibitory concentration of the tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk] [1,4]-benzodiazepin-2-(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO) derivate R82913 for one strain which was naturally resistant to this compound. This first report of subtype F pol sequences confirms the perfect correlation between the phylogenetic positions determined by env and pol analyses and suggests that virus variability might influence the efficacy of antiretroviral treatments. This finding warrants a global evaluation of the phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility of HIV-1 subtypes to antiretroviral drugs.
1996-12-20·Journal of Molecular Biology2区 · 生物学
Crystal structures of 8-Cl and 9-Cl TIBO complexed with wild-type HIV-1 RT and 8-Cl TIBO complexed with the Tyr181Cys HIV-1 RT drug-resistant mutant
2区 · 生物学
作者: Das, Kalyan ; Ding, Jianping ; Hsiou, Yu ; Clark, Arthur D. Jr. ; Moereels, Henri ; Koymans, Luc ; Andries, Koen ; Pauwels, Rudi ; Janssen, Paul A. J. ; Boyer, Paul L. ; Clark, Patrick ; Smith, Richard H. Jr. ; Smith, Marilyn B. Kroeger ; Michejda, Christopher J. ; Hughes, Stephen H. ; Arnold, Edward
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) is an important target for chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AIDS; the TIBO compounds are potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 RT (NNRTIs). Crystal structures of HIV-1 RT complexed with 8-Cl TIBO (R86183, IC50 = 4.6 nM) and 9-Cl TIBO (R82913, IC50 = 33 nM) have been determined at 3.0 A resolution. Mutant HIV-1 RT, containing Cys in place of Tyr at position 181 (Tyrl81Cys), is highly resistant to many NNRTIs and HIV-1 variants containing this mutation have been selected in both cell culture and clinical trials. We also report the crystal structure of Tyrl81Cys HIV-1 RT in complex with 8-Cl TIBO (IC50 = 130 nM) determined at 3.2 A resolution. Averaging of the electron density maps computed for different HIV-1 RT/NNRTI complexes and from diffraction datasets obtained using a synchrotron source from frozen (-165 degrees C) and cooled (-10 degrees C) crystals of the same complex was employed to improve the quality of electron density maps and to reduce model bias. The overall locations and conformations of the bound inhibitors in the complexes containing wild-type HIV-1 RT and the two TIBO inhibitors are very similar, as are the overall shapes and volumes of the non-nucleoside inhibitor-binding pocket (NNIBP). The major differences between the two wild-type HIV-1 RT/TIBO complexes occur in the vicinity of the TIBO chlorine substituents and involve the polypeptide segments around the beta5-beta6 connecting loop (residues 95 to 105) and the beta13-beta14 hairpin (residues 235 and 236). In all known structures of HIV-1 RT/NNRTI complexes, including these two, the position of the beta12-beta13 hairpin or the "primer grip" is significantly displaced relative to the position in the structure of HIV-1 RT complexed with a double-stranded DNA and in unliganded HIV-1 RT structures. Since the primer grip helps to position the template-primer, this displacement suggests that binding of NNRTIs would affect the relative positions of the primer terminus and the polymerase active site. This could explain biochemical data showing that NNRTI binding to HIV-1 RT reduces efficiency of the chemical step of DNA polymerization, but does not prevent binding of either dNTPs or DNA. When the structure of the Tyr181Cys mutant HIV-1 RT in complex with 8-Cl TIBO is compared with the corresponding structure containing wild-type HIV-1 RT, the overall conformations of Tyr181Cys and wild-type HIV-1 RT and of the 8-Cl TIBO inhibitors are very similar. Some positional changes in the polypeptide backbone of the beta6-beta10-beta9 sheet containing residue 181 are observed when the Tyr181Cys and wild-type complexes are compared, particularlty near residue Val179 of beta9. In the p51 subunit, the Cys181 side-chain is oriented in a similar direction to the Tyr181 side-chain in the wild-type complex. However, the electron density corresponding to the sulfur of the Cys181 side-chain in the p66 subunit is very weak, indicating that the thiol group is disordered, presumably because there is no significant interaction with either 8-Cl TIBO or nearby amino acid residues. In the mutant complex, there are slight rearrangements of the side-chains of other amino acid residues in the NNIBP and of the flexible dimethylallyl group of 8-Cl TIBO; these conformational changes could potentially compensate for the interactions that were lost when the relatively large tyrosine at position 181 was replaced by a less bulky cysteine residue. In the corresponding wild-type complex, Tyr181 iin the p66 subunit has significant interactions with the bound inhibitor and the position of the Tyr181 side-chain is well defined in both subunits. Apparently the Tyr181 --> Cys mutation eliminates favorable contacts of the aromatic ring of the tyrosine and the bou