Therapeutic proteins and peptides (PPTs) have become one of the most important biological
molecules for the management of many common and complex diseases due to their high specificity and
high bioactivity. However, these biomolecules are mainly given by the hypodermic injection, which
often leads to poor patient compliance due to the invasive nature of this route of administration. The
oral route has been considered the most convenient and patient-friendly route for drug delivery relative
to hypodermic injections. Despite the ease and simplicity conferred by oral administration, this drug
delivery route suffers rapid peptide degradation in gastric fluid and low intestinal uptake. In order to
circumvent these issues, several strategies, such as enzyme inhibitors, permeation enhancers, chemical
modification, mucoadhesive and stimuli-responsive polymers, and specialised particulate formulation
have been developed. Such strategies are designed with the aim of protecting PPTs from the harsh gastrointestinal
environment as well as providing a strategy to enhance the uptake of the therapeutic across
the gastrointestinal tract. This review aims to provide an overview of the current development in enteral
drug delivery strategies for PPTs. The design of these drug delivery systems in overcoming physical
and chemical barriers along the gastrointestinal tract while improving oral bioavailability will be highlighted
2024-02-01·Infectious Diseases Now
Optimizing the use of current antituberculosis drugs to overcome drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
作者: Aubry, Alexandra ; Veziris, Nicolas ; Baulard, Alain ; Maitre, Thomas
Antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis continues to be one of the major threats to global tuberculosis control. After a hiatus of over 40 years in antituberculosis drug development, the last decade has seen a resurgence of research, yielding a number of promising compounds in the tuberculosis drug pipeline, with some that are now game changers in the treatment of MDRTB. Despite this progress, there are still obstacles restricting the use of these molecules as first-line drugs. The quick appearance of bacteria resistant to these new treatments highlights a continuing need to fuel the discovery and development of new molecules. With this in mind, alternative strategies aimed at optimizing the utilization of existing antituberculosis agents are currently under evaluation. They are focused on enhancing the efficacy of antibiotics against their bacterial targets, primarily by augmenting the quantity of antibiotic that engages with these targets. This objective can be achieved through two primary approaches: (1) Provided that toxicity concerns are not a limiting factor, increased dosing is a viable avenue, as demonstrated by rifampicin, isoniazid, and fluoroquinolones, for which escalated dosing has been effective; and (2) Employing enhancers such as drug activator boosters (ethionamide), efflux pump inhibitors, or hydrolytic enzyme inhibitors (kanamycin) can elevate the concentration of antibiotics in bacterial cells. These strategies offer the potential to mitigate antibiotic obsolescence and complement the discovery of new antibiotics.
2024-01-01·Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Screening of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors from natural products via origami microﬂuidic paper-based analytical devices with colorimetric detection
We report the screening of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on an origami microﬂuidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) using colorimetric detection. The hydrolysis product reacts with ninhydrin, resulting in a purple color at the detection zones. Images of the μPADs are captured using a common cell phone and analyzed with Photoshop software. This platform allows six independent colorimetric reactions to take place simultaneously, and the IC50 values can be obtained in a single run within 22 min. The relative standard deviations of inhibition efficiencies are generally lower than 4.0 % (n = 5). The IC50 values of captopril and five products from natural plants were obtained and corresponded well with UV methods. The relative deviations between the two methods are within the range of -5 % to +5 %. This work is a proof-of-concept successfully demonstrating the use of μPADs technology to screen enzyme inhibitors from natural products.
Breadth of Research Reflects
's Commitment to Rheumatology
Data Include Sjögren's Syndrome, Uncontrolled Gout, Severe Active ANCA-Associated Vasculitis and Psoriatic Arthritis
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif.
Nov. 1, 2023
(NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced the presentation of new scientific and clinical research across its expanded rheumatology pipeline and portfolio, following the recent acquisition of Horizon Therapeutics. More than 20 abstracts will be presented during the
American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Convergence
, taking place
"The data at ACR will illustrate our continued growth in rheumatology as we advance unique treatment approaches across a broader range of diseases," said
David M. Reese
, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at
. "Drawing on our decades of experience in inflammation, we're looking forward to advancing new treatment areas like Sjögren's syndrome and uncontrolled gout."
At ACR, new results will be presented from the Phase 2 study of dazodalibep, an investigational therapy for Sjögren's. Other research highlights include new TAVNEOS
(avacopan) data from the Phase 3 ADVOCATE study evaluating diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in patients with severe active ANCA-associated vasculitis (GPA/MPA), as well as an oral presentation on Otezla
(apremilast) in FOREMOST, the first placebo-controlled study designed to specifically assess people with early oligoarticular psoriatic arthritis. Additionally, new real-world data showing a significant uptake in the use of KRYSTEXXA
(pegloticase) with methotrexate or other immunomodulators by clinicians following the
labeling update, will be delivered at the meeting.
Abstracts and Presentation Times:
AMG 570 (rozibafusp alfa)
(pegloticase) is the first and only biologic approved by the FDA to treat adults living with uncontrolled gout, a painful and debilitating inflammatory condition with which people continue to have abnormally high levels of uric acid and symptoms despite the use of conventional therapies.
In 2022, the FDA approved expanding labeling to include co-administration with the immunomodulator methotrexate, based on results from the MIRROR randomized controlled trial, which showed significant improvements in efficacy and safety, including a reduction in infusion reactions.
About Uncontrolled Gout
Gout is a chronic, progressive inflammatory form of arthritis that is caused by high urate levels in the body. Tiny needle-like crystals can form and build up almost anywhere in the body. Patients with uncontrolled gout continue to have high levels of uric acid and ongoing symptoms of gout despite the use of oral urate-lowering therapies. Uncontrolled gout is a chronic, systemic disease, and if not addressed can have significant clinical consequences.
KRYSTEXXA (pegloticase) is indicated for the treatment of chronic gout in adult patients who have failed to normalize serum uric acid and whose signs and symptoms are inadequately controlled with xanthine oxidase inhibitors at the maximum medically appropriate dose or for whom these drugs are contraindicated.
Limitations of Use: KRYSTEXXA is not recommended for the treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNING: ANAPHYLAXIS AND INFUSION REACTIONS, G6PD DEFICIENCY ASSOCIATED HEMOLYSIS AND METHEMOGLOBINEMIA
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
An increase in gout flares is frequently observed upon initiation of anti-hyperuricemic therapy, including KRYSTEXXA. Gout flare prophylaxis with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or colchicine is recommended starting at least 1 week before initiation of KRYSTEXXA therapy and lasting at least 6 months, unless medically contraindicated or not tolerated.
Congestive Heart Failure:
KRYSTEXXA has not been formally studied in patients with congestive heart failure, but some patients in the pre-marketing placebo-controlled clinical trials experienced exacerbation. Caution should be exercised in patients who have congestive heart failure and patients should be closely monitored following infusion.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥5%) are:
Full Prescribing Information
including Boxed Warning
(apremilast) is an oral small-molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) specific for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). PDE4 inhibition results in increased intracellular cAMP levels, which is thought to indirectly modulate the production of inflammatory mediators. The specific mechanism(s) by which Otezla exerts its therapeutic action in patients is not well defined.
Since its initial FDA approval in 2014, Otezla has been prescribed to more than 840,000 patients worldwide.
About Psoriatic Arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory form of arthritis, which can cause swelling, stiffness and pain in and around the joints that worsens over time and can decrease physical function. It is estimated that nearly 38 million people worldwide have psoriatic arthritis. Around a third of people living with psoriasis may go on to develop psoriatic arthritis. If left untreated, psoriatic arthritis can cause disability.
Otezla U.S. INDICATIONS
Otezla (apremilast) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with plaque psoriasis who are candidates for phototherapy or systemic therapy.
Otezla is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis.
Otezla is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with oral ulcers associated with Behçet's Disease.
Otezla U.S. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Warnings and Precautions
Use in Specific Populations
Full Prescribing Information.
(avacopan), approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment of severe active ANCA-associated vasculitis (GPA/MPA), is a first-in-class, orally administered small molecule that employs a novel, highly targeted mode of action. While the precise mechanism in ANCA-associated vasculitis (GPA/MPA) has not been definitively established, TAVNEOS, by blocking the complement 5a receptor (C5aR) for the pro-inflammatory complement system fragment known as C5a on destructive inflammatory cells such as blood neutrophils, is presumed to arrest the ability of those cells to do damage in response to C5a activation, which is known to be a driver of ANCA-associated vasculitis (GPA/MPA).
About ANCA-Associated Vasculitis
ANCA-associated vasculitis is an umbrella term for a group of multi-system autoimmune diseases with small vessel inflammation. Inflamed vessels may rupture or become occluded giving rise to a broad array of clinical symptoms and signs related to a systemic inflammatory response which may result in profound impairment in the kidneys, lungs and other organs. Prior to the approval of TAVNEOS in severe active ANCA-associated vasculitis, treatment for ANCA-associated vasculitis was limited to courses of immuno-suppressants (cyclophosphamide or rituximab), combined with the administration of daily glucocorticoids (steroids) for prolonged periods of time, which can be associated with significant clinical consequences.
TAVNEOS U.S. PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
TAVNEOS is indicated as an adjunctive treatment of adult patients with severe active anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis [GPA] and microscopic polyangiitis [MPA]) in combination with standard therapy including glucocorticoids. TAVNEOS does not eliminate glucocorticoid use.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Serious hypersensitivity to avacopan or to any of the excipients.
Warning and Precautions
Hepatotoxicity: Serious cases of hepatic injury have been observed in patients taking TAVNEOS, including life-threatening events. Obtain liver test panel before initiating TAVNEOS, every 4 weeks after start of therapy for six months and as clinically indicated thereafter. Monitor patients closely for hepatic adverse reactions, and consider pausing or discontinuing treatment as clinically indicated (refer to section 5.1 of the Prescribing Information). TAVNEOS is not recommended for patients with active, untreated and/or uncontrolled chronic liver disease (e.g., chronic active hepatitis B, untreated hepatitis C, uncontrolled autoimmune hepatitis) and cirrhosis. Consider the risk and benefit before administering this drug to a patient with liver disease.
Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions: Cases of angioedema occurred in a clinical trial, including one serious event requiring hospitalization. Discontinue immediately if angioedema occurs and manage accordingly. TAVNEOS must not be re-administered unless another cause has been established.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Reactivation: Hepatitis B reactivation, including life threatening hepatitis B, was observed in the clinical program. Screen patients for HBV. For patients with evidence of prior infection, consult with physicians with expertise in HBV and monitor during TAVNEOS therapy and for six months following. If patients develop HBV reactivation, immediately discontinue TAVNEOS and concomitant therapies associated with HBV reactivation, and consult with experts before resuming.
Serious Infections: Serious infections, including fatal infections, have been reported in patients receiving TAVNEOS. The most common serious infections reported in TAVNEOS group were pneumonia and urinary tract infections. Avoid use of TAVNEOS in patients with active, serious infection, including localized infections. Consider the risks and benefits before initiating TAVNEOS in patients with chronic infection, at increased risk of infection or who have been to places where certain infections are common.
The most common adverse reactions (≥5% of patients and higher in the TAVNEOS group vs. prednisone group) were: nausea, headache, hypertension, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, fatigue, upper abdominal pain, dizziness, blood creatinine increased, and paresthesia.
Avoid coadministration of TAVNEOS with strong and moderate CYP3A4 enzyme inducers. Reduce TAVNEOS dose when co-administered with strong CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitors to 30 mg once daily. Monitor for adverse reactions and consider dose reduction of certain sensitive CYP3A4 substrates.
Full Prescribing Information
is a CD40 ligand antagonist that blocks T cell interaction with CD40-expressing B cells, disrupting the overactivation of the CD40 ligand co-stimulatory pathway. Several autoimmune diseases are associated with the overactivation of this pathway.
also plans to investigate dazodalibep in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a rare kidney disorder characterized by scarring of glomeruli.
About Sjögren's Syndrome
Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands, primarily the salivary and tear glands, with severe cases affecting multiple organs. Like other autoimmune diseases, Sjögren's syndrome primarily affects women. The disease also has an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma and there is an unmet medical need for patients with extraglandular disease manifestations, as currently there is no therapy that can improve or slow the course of the disease. Disease manifestations include dry mouth, dry eyes, arthritis and kidney or lung dysfunction.
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
Amgen is one of the 30 companies that comprise the Dow Jones Industrial Average and is also part of the Nasdaq-100 index. In 2023,
was named one of "America's Greatest Workplaces" by Newsweek, one of "America's Climate Leaders" by
and one of the "World's Best Companies" by TIME.
For more information, visit
and follow us on
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This news release contains forward-looking statements that are based on the current expectations and beliefs of
. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements, including any statements on the outcome, benefits and synergies of collaborations, or potential collaborations, with any other company (including BeiGene, Ltd. or Kyowa-Kirin Co., Ltd.), the performance of Otezla® (apremilast) (including anticipated Otezla sales growth and the timing of non-GAAP EPS accretion), the
acquisition, or the Horizon Therapeutics plc acquisition (including the prospective performance and outlook of Horizon's business, performance and opportunities and any potential strategic benefits, synergies or opportunities expected as a result of such acquisition), as well as estimates of revenues, operating margins, capital expenditures, cash, other financial metrics, expected legal, arbitration, political, regulatory or clinical results or practices, customer and prescriber patterns or practices, reimbursement activities and outcomes, effects of pandemics or other widespread health problems on our business, outcomes, progress, and other such estimates and results. Forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties, including those discussed below and more fully described in the
Securities and Exchange Commission
reports filed by
, including our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and any subsequent periodic reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K. Unless otherwise noted,
is providing this information as of the date of this news release and does not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this document as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
No forward-looking statement can be guaranteed and actual results may differ materially from those we project. Discovery or identification of new product candidates or development of new indications for existing products cannot be guaranteed and movement from concept to product is uncertain; consequently, there can be no guarantee that any particular product candidate or development of a new indication for an existing product will be successful and become a commercial product. Further, preclinical results do not guarantee safe and effective performance of product candidates in humans. The complexity of the human body cannot be perfectly, or sometimes, even adequately modeled by computer or cell culture systems or animal models. The length of time that it takes for us to complete clinical trials and obtain regulatory approval for product marketing has in the past varied and we expect similar variability in the future. Even when clinical trials are successful, regulatory authorities may question the sufficiency for approval of the trial endpoints we have selected. We develop product candidates internally and through licensing collaborations, partnerships and joint ventures. Product candidates that are derived from relationships may be subject to disputes between the parties or may prove to be not as effective or as safe as we may have believed at the time of entering into such relationship. Also, we or others could identify safety, side effects or manufacturing problems with our products, including our devices, after they are on the market.
Our results may be affected by our ability to successfully market both new and existing products domestically and internationally, clinical and regulatory developments involving current and future products, sales growth of recently launched products, competition from other products including biosimilars, difficulties or delays in manufacturing our products and global economic conditions. In addition, sales of our products are affected by pricing pressure, political and public scrutiny and reimbursement policies imposed by third-party payers, including governments, private insurance plans and managed care providers and may be affected by regulatory, clinical and guideline developments and domestic and international trends toward managed care and healthcare cost containment. Furthermore, our research, testing, pricing, marketing and other operations are subject to extensive regulation by domestic and foreign government regulatory authorities. Our business may be impacted by government investigations, litigation and product liability claims. In addition, our business may be impacted by the adoption of new tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities. If we fail to meet the compliance obligations in the corporate integrity agreement between us and the
government, we could become subject to significant sanctions. Further, while we routinely obtain patents for our products and technology, the protection offered by our patents and patent applications may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented by our competitors, or we may fail to prevail in present and future intellectual property litigation. We perform a substantial amount of our commercial manufacturing activities at a few key facilities, including in
, and also depend on third parties for a portion of our manufacturing activities, and limits on supply may constrain sales of certain of our current products and product candidate development. An outbreak of disease or similar public health threat, such as COVID-19, and the public and governmental effort to mitigate against the spread of such disease, could have a significant adverse effect on the supply of materials for our manufacturing activities, the distribution of our products, the commercialization of our product candidates, and our clinical trial operations, and any such events may have a material adverse effect on our product development, product sales, business and results of operations. We rely on collaborations with third parties for the development of some of our product candidates and for the commercialization and sales of some of our commercial products. In addition, we compete with other companies with respect to many of our marketed products as well as for the discovery and development of new products. Further, some raw materials, medical devices and component parts for our products are supplied by sole third-party suppliers. Certain of our distributors, customers and payers have substantial purchasing leverage in their dealings with us. The discovery of significant problems with a product similar to one of our products that implicate an entire class of products could have a material adverse effect on sales of the affected products and on our business and results of operations. Our efforts to collaborate with or acquire other companies, products or technology, and to integrate the operations of companies or to support the products or technology we have acquired, may not be successful. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to realize any of the strategic benefits, synergies or opportunities arising from the Horizon acquisition, and such benefits, synergies or opportunities may take longer to realize than expected. We may not be able to successfully integrate Horizon, and such integration may take longer, be more difficult or cost more than expected. A breakdown, cyberattack or information security breach of our information technology systems could compromise the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our systems and our data. Our stock price is volatile and may be affected by a number of events. Our business and operations may be negatively affected by the failure, or perceived failure, of achieving our environmental, social and governance objectives. The effects of global climate change and related natural disasters could negatively affect our business and operations. Global economic conditions may magnify certain risks that affect our business. Our business performance could affect or limit the ability of our Board of Directors to declare a dividend or our ability to pay a dividend or repurchase our common stock. We may not be able to access the capital and credit markets on terms that are favorable to us, or at all.
The scientific information discussed in this news release related to our product candidates is preliminary and investigative. Such product candidates are not approved by the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
, and no conclusions can or should be drawn regarding the safety or effectiveness of the product candidates. Further, any scientific information discussed in this news release relating to new indications for our products is preliminary and investigative and is not part of the labeling approved by the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
for the products. The products are not approved for the investigational use(s) discussed in this news release, and no conclusions can or should be drawn regarding the safety or effectiveness of the products for these uses.
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, 805-440-5721 (media)
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Data Addresses Gaps in Preventive Prescriptions Therapy, Emphasizing the Importance of Multifaceted Interventions
SAN DIEGO, June 26, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, findings from the COORDINATE-Diabetes trial demonstrated that multi-disciplinary care between cardiologists, diabetes specialists and other team members can significantly increase the prescriptions of evidence-based therapies to help treat patients with both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), commonly known as heart disease. The trial was presented as a late-breaking symposium today at the 83rd Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association® (ADA) in San Diego, CA.
In the United States alone, up to two-thirds of patients with T2D develop ASCVD in their lifetime. While ASCVD is associated with worse health outcomes in patients with diabetes compared to the general population, evidence-based therapies to reduce heart disease risk in adults with T2D are underused in clinical practice. The goal of this study was to evaluate if a coordinated, multifaceted intervention of assessment, education, and feedback versus usual care on adults with T2D would impact the prescription of three recommended evidence-based therapies, designed to help treat patients with both diseases.
The randomized clinical trial included 43 cardiology clinics across the U.S. The clinics enrolled 1,049 participants (459 at 20 intervention clinics and 590 at 23 usual care clinics) with T2D and ASCVD not already taking all three groups of evidence-based therapies, including high-intensity statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and/or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1Ras). The median age was 70 years and there were 338 women (32.2%), 173 Black participants (16.5%), and 90 Hispanic participants (8.6%). The primary outcome was the proportion of participants prescribed all 3 groups of recommended therapies at six to 12 months after enrollment.
Findings show that coordinated care intervention can significantly improve the quality of care that high risk patients receive. At the last follow-up visit, those in the intervention arm were 4.38-fold more likely to be prescribed all three recommended classes vs. the standard care arm. A total of 37.9% of those in the intervention arm had been prescribed all three classes vs. 14.5% in the standard care arm. In particular, those in the intervention arm were more than 3-fold more likely to be prescribed an SGLT2 inhibitor and/or GLP-1RA. While the study was not designed or powered to detect differences in clinical outcomes, 23 of 457 participants (5%) in the intervention group vs 40 of 588 participants (6.8%) in the usual care group experienced the composite outcome of all-cause death or hospitalization for myocardial infarction, stroke, decompensated heart failure, or urgent revascularization (21% decrease in relative risk, not statistically significant).
"For patients with type 2 diabetes and heart disease, receiving the appropriate therapy is critically important for treatment and prevention, yet there is still a large gap in the number of patients actually receiving the treatment needed," said Neha Pagidipati, MD, MPH, Associate Professor of Medicine at Duke University School of Medicine. "Our study shows us that by providing multifaceted interventions such as assessing local barriers and coordinating across clinicians and clinics, we can help increase the prescriptions of the therapies proven effective for patients with both type 2 diabetes and ASCVD."
The authors note the implementation of coordinated interventions in clinics across the country will likely result in improved patient care and outcomes.
Research presentation details:
Dr. Pagidipati will present the findings during the following symposium:
Symposium: COORDINATE—Diabetes Study Results Symposium
Presented on Monday, June 26, 2023 at 1:30 – 3:00 PM PST
About the ADA's Scientific Sessions
The ADA's 83rd Scientific Sessions, the world's largest scientific meeting focused on diabetes research, prevention, and care, will be held in San Diego, CA on June 23–26. More than 12,000 leading physicians, scientists, and health care professionals from around the world are expected to convene both in person and virtually to unveil cutting-edge research, treatment recommendations, and advances toward a cure for diabetes. Attendees will receive exclusive access to thousands of original research presentations and take part in provocative and engaging exchanges with leading diabetes experts. Join the Scientific Sessions conversation on social media using #ADA2023.
About the American Diabetes Association
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is the nation's leading voluntary health organization fighting to bend the curve on the diabetes epidemic and help people living with diabetes thrive. For 82 years, the ADA has driven discovery and research to treat, manage, and prevent diabetes while working relentlessly for a cure. Through advocacy, program development, and education we aim to improve the quality of life for the over 133 million Americans living with diabetes or prediabetes. Diabetes has brought us together. What we do next will make us Connected for Life. To learn more or to get involved, visit us at diabetes.org or call 1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383). Join the fight with us on Facebook (American Diabetes Association), Spanish Facebook (Asociación Americana de la Diabetes), LinkedIn (American Diabetes Association), Twitter (@AmDiabetesAssn), and Instagram (@AmDiabetesAssn).
Contact: Rebecca Fisher, 703-253-4918
SOURCE American Diabetes Association