Ubiquitination on Lysine 247 of Newcastle Disease Virus Matrix Protein Enhances Viral Replication and Virulence by Driving Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Trafficking.
2区 · 医学
作者: Tingyu Peng ; Xusheng Qiu ; Lei Tan ; Shengqing Yu ; Binghuan Yang ; Jun Dai ; Xiaowen Liu ; Yingjie Sun ; Cuiping Song ; Weiwei Liu ; Chunchun Meng ; Ying Liao ; Weifeng Yuan ; Tao Ren ; Xiufan Liu ; Chan Ding
The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein is the pivotal element for viral assembly, budding and proliferation. It traffics through the cellular nucleus but performs its primary function in the cytoplasm. To investigate the biological importance of M's nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking and the mechanism involved, the regulatory motif nuclear export signal (NES) and nuclear localization signal (NLS) were deeply analyzed. Here, two types of combined NLS and NES signals were identified within NDV-M. The Herts/33-type M was found to mediate efficient nuclear export and stable virus-like particle (VLP) release, while the LaSota-type M was mostly retained in the nuclei and showed retarded VLP production. Two critical residues, 247 and 263, within the motif were identified and associated with nuclear export efficiency. We identified, for the first time, residue 247 as an important monoubiquitination site, the modification of which regulates the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of NDV-M. Subsequently, mutant LaSota strains were rescued via reverse genetics, which contained either single or double amino acid substitutions that were similar to the M of Herts/33. The rescued rLaSota strains rLaSota-R247K, -S263R, and -DM (double mutation) showed about twofold higher HA titers and 10-fold higher EID50 titers than wild-type (wt) rLaSota. Further, the MDT and ICPI values of those recombinant viruses were slightly higher than that of wt rLaSota probably due to their higher proliferation rates. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of the replication and pathogenicity of NDV, and even those of all other paramyxoviruses. It is beneficial for the development of vaccines and therapies for paramyxoviruses. Importance Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that is lethal to birds and causes heavy losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) ranked ND as the third most significant poultry disease and the eighth most important wildlife disease in the World Livestock Disease Atlas in 2011. The matrix (M) protein of NDV is very important for viral assembly and maturation. It is interesting that M proteins enter the cellular nucleus before performing their primary function in the cytoplasm. We found that NDV-M has a combined nuclear import and export signal. The ubiquitin modification of a lysine residue within this signal is critical for quick, efficient nuclear export and subsequent viral production. Our findings shed new light on viral replication and opens up new possibilities for therapeutics against NDV and other paramyxoviruses; furthermore, we demonstrate a novel approach to improving paramyxovirus vaccines.
2019-04-02·Scientific reports3区 · 综合性期刊
Novel avian paramyxovirus-based vaccine vectors expressing the Ebola virus glycoprotein elicit mucosal and humoral immune responses in guinea pigs.
3区 · 综合性期刊
作者: Asuka Yoshida ; Shin-Hee Kim ; Vinoth K Manoharan ; Berin P Varghese ; Anandan Paldurai ; Siba K Samal
Paramyxovirus vaccine vectors based on human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been previously evaluated against Ebola virus (EBOV) challenge. Although both the viral vectored vaccines efficiently induce protective immunity, some concerns remain to be solved. Since HPIV-3 is a common human pathogen, the human population has pre-existing immunity to HPIV-3, which may restrict the replication of the vaccine vector. For NDV, mesogenic (intermediate virulent) strain used in previous studies is currently classified as a Select Agent in the United States, thus making it unsuitable to be used as a vaccine vector. To overcome these concerns, we have developed a modified NDV vector based on a mesogenic NDV strain, in which the ectodomains of envelope glycoproteins were replaced with the corresponding ectodomains from avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 (APMV-3). The modified NDV vector was highly attenuated in chickens and was able to express the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) gene at high level. In addition, the recombinant APMV-3 was also evaluated as a vaccine vector to express the EBOV GP gene. Guinea pigs immunized with these two vector vaccines developed high levels of neutralizing GP-specific IgG and IgA antibodies.
2019-02-01·The Lancet. Global health1区 · 医学
Age-targeted tuberculosis vaccination in China and implications for vaccine development: a modelling study.
1区 · 医学
作者: Rebecca C Harris ; Tom Sumner ; Gwenan M Knight ; Tom Evans ; Vicky Cardenas ; Chen Chen ; Richard G White
Tuberculosis is the leading single-pathogen cause of death worldwide, and China has the third largest number of cases worldwide. New tools, such as new vaccines, are needed to meet WHO tuberculosis goals. Tuberculosis vaccine development strategies mostly target infants or adolescents, but given China's ageing epidemic, vaccinating older people might be important. We modelled the potential impact of new tuberculosis vaccines in China targeting adolescents (15-19 years) or older adults (60-64 years) with varying vaccine characteristics to inform strategic vaccine development.
A Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission model was calibrated to age-stratified demographic and epidemiological data from China. Varying scenarios of vaccine implementation (age targeting [adolescents or older adults] and coverage [30% or 70%]) and characteristics (efficacy [40%, 60%, or 80%], duration of protection [10 years or 20 years], and host infection status required for efficacy [pre-infection, post-infection in latency, post-infection in latency or recovered, or pre-infection and post-infection]) were assessed. Primary outcomes were tuberculosis incidence and mortality rate reduction in 2050 in each vaccine scenario compared with the baseline (no new vaccine) scenario and cumulative number needed to vaccinate (NNV) per case or death averted, 2025-50.
By 2050, results suggest that 74·5% (uncertainty interval [UI] 70·2-78·6) of incident tuberculosis cases in China would occur in people aged 65 years or older, and 75·1% (66·8-80·7) of all cases would be due to reactivation, rather than new infection. All vaccine profiles delivered to older adults had higher population-level impact (reduction of incidence and mortality rates) and lower NNV per case and per death averted than if delivered to adolescents. For an intermediate vaccine scenario of 60% efficacy, 10-year protection, and 70% coverage, the reduction of tuberculosis incidence rates with older adult vaccination was 1·9 times (UI 1·5-2·6) to 157·5 times (119·3-225·6) greater than with adolescent vaccination, and the NNV was 0·011 times (0·008-0·014) to 0·796 times (0·632-0·970) lower. Furthermore, with older adult vaccination, post-infection vaccines provided substantially greater mortality and incidence rate reductions than pre-infection vaccines.
Adolescent-targeted tuberculosis vaccines, the focus of many development plans, would have only a small impact in ageing, reactivation-driven epidemics such as those in China. Instead, an efficacious post-infection vaccine delivered to older adults will be crucial to maximise population-level impact in this setting and would provide an important contribution towards achieving WHO goals. Older adults should be included in tuberculosis vaccine clinical development and implementation planning.