TIMP1 and TIMP2 Downregulate TGFβ Induced Decidual-like Phenotype in Natural Killer Cells.
2区 · 医学
作者: Adriana Albini ; Matteo Gallazzi ; Maria Teresa Palano ; Valentina Carlini ; Riccardo Ricotta ; Antonino Bruno ; William G Stetler-Stevenson ; Douglas M Noonan
Natural Killer (NK) cells have been found to be anergic, exhausted and pro-angiogenic in cancers. NK cell from healthy donors, exposed to TGFβ, acquire the CD56brightCD9+CD49a+ decidual-like-phenotype, together with decreased levels of NKG2D activation marker, increased levels of TIM-3 exhaustion marker, similar to cancer-associated NK cells. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) exert dual roles in cancer. The role of TIMPs in modulating immune cells is a very novel concept, and the present is the first report studying their ability to contrast TGFβ action on NK cells. Here, we investigated the effects of TIMP1 and TIMP2 recombinant proteins in hindering decidual-like markers in NK cells, generated by polarizing cytolytic NK cells with TGFβ. The effects of TIMP1 or TIMP2 on NK cell surface antigens were determined by multicolor flow cytometry. We found that TIMP1 and TIMP2 were effective in interfering with TGFβ induced NK cell polarization towards a decidual-like-phenotype. TIMP1 and TIMP2 counteracted the effect of TGFβ in increasing the percentage of CD56bright, CD16-, CD9+ and CD49a+, and restoring normal levels for TIMP 1 and 2 also inhibited decrease levels of the activation marker NKG2D induced by TGFβ and decreased the TGFβ upregulated exhaustion marker TIM-3. NK cell degranulation capabilities against K562 cells were also decreased by TGFβ and not by TIMP1 or TIMP2. TIMP1 treatment could partially restore degranulation marker CD107a expression. Treatment with recombinant TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 showed a trend, although not statistically significant, to decrease CD49a+ and TIM-3+ expression and increase NKG2D in peripheral blood NK cells exposed to conditioned media from colon cancer cell lines. Our results suggest a potential role of TIMPs in controlling the tumor-associated cytokine TGFβ-induced NK cell polarization. Given the heterogeneity of released factors within the TME, it is clear that TGFβ stimulation represents a model to prove TIMP's new properties, but it cannot be envisaged as a soloist NK cell polarizing agent. Therefore, further studies from the scientific community will help defining TIMPs immunomodulatory activities of NK cells in cancer, and their possible future diagnostic-therapeutic roles.
Reduced scleral TIMP-2 expression is associated with myopia development: TIMP-2 supplementation stabilizes scleral biomarkers of myopia and limits myopia development
2区 · 医学
作者: Liu, Hsin-Hua ; Kenning, Megan S. ; Jobling, Andrew I. ; McBrien, Neville A. ; Gentle, Alex
The purpose of this study was to determine the endogenous regulation pattern of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in the tree shrew sclera during myopia development and investigate the capacity of exogenous TIMP-2 to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in vitro and both scleral collagen degradation and myopia development in vivo.
TIMP-2 expression in the sclera during myopia development was assessed using polymerase chain reaction. In vitro TIMP-2 inhibition of MMP-2 was investigated using a gelatinase activity plate assay and zymography. Tree shrews were injected with a collagen precursor before undergoing monocular form deprivation and concurrent daily subconjunctival injections of either TIMP-2 or vehicle to the form-deprived eye. In vivo ocular biometry changes were monitored, and scleral tissue was collected after 12 days and assayed for collagen degradation.
The development of myopia was associated with a mean reduction in TIMP-2 mRNA expression after 5 days of form deprivation (P < 0.01). Both activation and activity of MMP-2 were inhibited by TIMP-2 with an IC50 of 10 to 20 and 2 nM, respectively. In vivo exogenous addition of TIMP-2 significantly reduced myopia development (P < 0.01), due to reduced vitreous chamber elongation (P < 0.01). In vivo TIMP-2 treatment also significantly inhibited posterior scleral collagen degradation relative to vehicle-treated eyes (P < 0.01), with levels similar to those in control eyes.
Myopia development in mammals is associated with reduced expression of TIMP-2, which contributes to increased degradative activity in the sclera. It follows that replenishment of this TIMP-2 significantly reduced the rate of both scleral collagen degradation and myopia development.
2014-11-30·Cardiovascular Pathology4区 · 医学
Human cardiac fibroblast extracellular matrix remodeling: dual effects of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2
4区 · 医学
作者: Ngu, Janet M. C. ; Teng, Guoqi ; Meijndert, Hans Christopher ; Mewhort, Holly E. ; Turnbull, Jeannine D. ; Stetler-Stevenson, William G. ; Fedak, Paul W. M.
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) is an endogenous inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that attenuates maladaptive cardiac remodeling in ischemic heart failure. We examined the effects of TIMP-2 on human cardiac fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling.
Human cardiac fibroblasts within a three-dimensional collagen matrix were assessed for phenotype conversion, ECM architecture and key molecular regulators of ECM remodeling after differential exposure to TIMP-2 and Ala+TIMP-2 (a modified TIMP-2 analogue devoid of MMP inhibitory activity).
TIMP-2 induced opposite effects on human cardiac fibroblast activation and ECM remodeling depending on concentration. TIMP-2 activated fibroblasts into contractile myofibroblasts that remodeled ECM. At higher concentrations (>10 nM), TIMP-2 inhibited fibroblast activation and prevented ECM remodeling. As compared to profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, TIMP-2 activated fibroblasts and remodeled ECM without a net accumulation of matrix elements. TIMP-2 increased total protease activity as compared to TGF-beta1. Ala+TIMP-2 exposure revealed that the actions of TIMP-2 on cardiac fibroblast activation are independent of its effects on MMP inhibition. In the presence of GM6001, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, TIMP-2-mediated ECM contraction was completely abolished, indicating that TIMP-2-mediated fibroblast activation is MMP dependent.
TIMP-2 functions in a contextual fashion such that the effect on cardiac fibroblasts depends on the tissue microenvironment. These observations highlight potential clinical challenges in using TIMP-2 as a therapeutic strategy to attenuate postinjury cardiac remodeling.