2023-08-12·Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association
PPARδ dysregulation of CCL20/CCR6 axis promotes gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis by remodeling gastric tumor microenvironment.
作者: Yi Liu ; Daoyan Wei ; Yasunori Deguchi ; Weiguo Xu ; Rui Tian ; Fuyao Liu ; Min Xu ; Fei Mao ; Donghui Li ; Weidong Chen ; Lovie Ann Valentin ; Eriko Deguchi ; James C Yao ; Imad Shureiqi ; Xiangsheng Zuo
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) promotes inflammation and carcinogenesis in many organs, but the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. In stomachs, PPARδ significantly increases chemokine Ccl20 expression in gastric epithelial cells while inducing gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). CCR6 is the sole receptor of CCL20. Here, we examine the role of PPARδ-mediated Ccl20/Ccr6 signaling in GAC carcinogenesis and investigate the underlying mechanisms.
The effects of PPARδ inhibition by its specific antagonist GSK3787 on GAC were examined in the mice with villin-promoter-driven PPARδ overexpression (PpardTG). RNAscope Duplex Assays were used to measure Ccl20 and Ccr6 levels in stomachs and spleens. Subsets of stomach-infiltrating immune cells were measured via flow cytometry or immunostaining in PpardTG mice fed GSK3787 or control diet. A panel of 13 optimized proinflammatory chemokines in mouse sera were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
GSK3787 significantly suppressed GAC carcinogenesis in PpardTG mice. PPARδ increased Ccl20 level to chemoattract Ccr6+ immunosuppressive cells, including tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T regulatory cells, but decreased CD8+ T cells in gastric tissues. GSK3787 suppressed PPARδ-induced gastric immunosuppression by inhibiting Ccl20/Ccr6 axis. Furthermore, Ccl20 protein levels increased in sera of PpardTG mice starting at the age preceding gastric tumor development and further increased with GAC progression as the mice aged. GSK3787 decreased the PPARδ-upregulated Ccl20 levels in sera of the mice.
PPARδ dysregulation of Ccl20/Ccr6 axis promotes GAC carcinogenesis by remodeling gastric tumor microenvironment. CCL20 might be a potential biomarker for the early detection and progression of GAC.
2023-03-05·International journal of molecular sciences
PPARβ/δ Ligands Regulate Oxidative Status and Inflammatory Response in Inflamed Corpus Luteum-An In Vitro Study.
作者: Karol Mierzejewski ; Aleksandra Kurzyńska ; Zuzanna Gerwel ; Monika Golubska ; Robert Stryiński ; Iwona Bogacka
Inflammation in the female reproductive system causes serious health problems including infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) ligands on the transcriptomic profile of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated pig corpus luteum (CL) in the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle using RNA-seq technology. The CL slices were incubated in the presence of LPS or in combination with LPS and the PPARβ/δ agonist-GW0724 (1 μmol/L or 10 μmol/L) or the antagonist-GSK3787 (25 μmol/L). We identified 117 differentially expressed genes after treatment with LPS; 102 and 97 differentially expressed genes after treatment, respectively, with the PPARβ/δ agonist at a concentration of 1 μmol/L or 10 μmol/L, as well as 88 after the treatment with the PPARβ/δ antagonist. In addition, biochemical analyses of oxidative status were performed (total antioxidant capacity and activity of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase). This study revealed that PPARβ/δ agonists regulate genes involved in the inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that the lower dose of GW0724 showed an anti-inflammatory character, while the higher dose seems to be pro-inflammatory. We propose that GW0724 should be considered for further research to alleviate chronic inflammation (at the lower dose) or to support the natural immune response against pathogens (at the higher dose) in the inflamed corpus luteum.
2022-01-01·Frontiers in veterinary science
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Activation in Precision-Cut Bovine Liver Slices Reveals Novel Putative PPAR Targets in Periparturient Dairy Cows.
作者: Sebastiano Busato ; Hunter R Ford ; Alzahraa M Abdelatty ; Charles T Estill ; Massimo Bionaz
Metabolic challenges experienced by dairy cows during the transition between pregnancy and lactation (also known as peripartum), are of considerable interest from a nutrigenomic perspective. The mobilization of large amounts of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) leads to an increase in NEFA uptake in the liver, the excess of which can cause hepatic accumulation of lipids and ultimately fatty liver. Interestingly, peripartum NEFA activate the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR), a transcriptional regulator with known nutrigenomic properties. The study of PPAR activation in the liver of periparturient dairy cows is thus crucial; however, current in vitro models of the bovine liver are inadequate, and the isolation of primary hepatocytes is time consuming, resource intensive, and prone to errors, with the resulting cells losing characteristic phenotypical traits within hours. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from liver biopsies as a model for PPAR activation in periparturient dairy cows. Three primiparous Jersey cows were enrolled in the experiment, and PCLS from each were prepared prepartum (-8.0 ± 3.6 DIM) and postpartum (+7.7± 1.2 DIM) and treated independently with a variety of PPAR agonists and antagonists: the PPARα agonist WY-14643 and antagonist GW-6471; the PPARδ agonist GW-50156 and antagonist GSK-3787; and the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and antagonist GW-9662. Gene expression was assayed through RT-qPCR and RNAseq, and intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration was measured. PCLS obtained from postpartum cows and treated with a PPARγ agonist displayed upregulation of ACADVL and LIPC while those treated with PPARδ agonist had increased expression of LIPC, PPARD, and PDK4. In PCLS from prepartum cows, transcription of LIPC was increased by all PPAR agonists and NEFA. TAG concentration tended to be larger in tissue slices treated with PPARδ agonist compared to CTR. Use of PPAR isotype-specific antagonists in PCLS cultivated in autologous blood serum failed to decrease expression of PPAR targets, except for PDK4, which was confirmed to be a PPARδ target. Transcriptome sequencing revealed considerable differences in response to PPAR agonists at a false discovery rate-adjusted p-value of 0.2, with the most notable effects exerted by the PPARδ and PPARγ agonists. Differentially expressed genes were mainly related to pathways involved with lipid metabolism and the immune response. Among differentially expressed genes, a subset of 91 genes were identified as novel putative PPAR targets in the bovine liver, by cross-referencing our results with a publicly available dataset of predicted PPAR target genes, and supplementing our findings with prior literature. Our results provide important insights on the use of PCLS as a model for assaying PPAR activation in the periparturient dairy cow.