Integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed the regulatory mechanism of sulfur application in grain yield and protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
作者: Zhilian Liu ; Dongcheng Liu ; Xiaoyi Fu ; Xiong Du ; Yuechen Zhang ; Wenchao Zhen ; Shan Li ; Haichuan Yang ; Suqin He ; Ruiqi Li
Sulfur fertilizers play an important role in increasing the yield and improving the dough quality of bread wheat, but their regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 0 kg·ha-1 (S0) and 60 kg·ha-1 (S60) of sulfur were applied on the anthesis date; subsequently, immature wheat grains at 8, 13, and 18 days post-anthesis (DPA) were subjected to integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to investigate the changes in the gene/metabolite activity in a typical strong-gluten wheat, Gaoyou2018 (GY2018). Our data show that the S60 treatment could significantly increase the grain yield and grain protein content by 13.2 and 3.6%, respectively. The transcriptomic analysis revealed that 10,694 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by S60 from 8 to 18 DPA when compared with their corresponding no-sulfur controls, and most DEGs were mainly involved in lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism pathways. Ninety-seven MYB transcription factors (TFs) were identified as responsive to the S60 treatment; of these, 66 showed significantly differential expression at 13 DPA, and MYB118 might participate in the process of sulfur metabolism by regulating glucosinolate synthesis. In total, 542 significantly enriched differentially expressed (DE) metabolites (DEMs) were identified following the S60 treatment, which mainly included secondary metabolites, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Several metabolites (e.g., glutathione, sucrose, GDP-alpha-D-glucose, and amino acids) exhibited altered abundances following the S60 treatment. The combination of transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses highlighted the important role of amino acid metabolism (especially cysteine, methionine, and glutathione metabolism) and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways after S60 application. Our results provide valuable information enhancing our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the response to sulfur and provide useful clues for grain protein quality formation and yield improvement in bread wheat.
2018-09-01·Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology4区 · 医学
The apoptotic effect of midazolam on the salivary gland of rats and the reversal effect by pilocarpine.
4区 · 医学
作者: Mariana Rinaldi ; Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann ; Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega ; Fábio Rocha ; Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio ; Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa ; Luciana Reis Azevedo Alanis ; Yusuf Althobaiti ; Silvana da Silva Sapelli ; Ana Maria Trindade Grégio Hardy
To evaluate the apoptosis in parotid glands of rats treated with midazolam associated or not with pilocarpine, 60 Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups: control groups received saline solution for 30 days (S30) and 60 days (S60) and the other groups received pilocarpine for 60 days (P60), midazolam for 30 days (M30), midazolam for 30 days and 30 days of saline (M30 + S30), and finally midazolam for 30 days and 30 days of midazolam and pilocarpine (M30 + MP30). Histological sections were subjected to the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling technique. The number of positive and negative cells was quantified, calculating the apoptotic index. ANOVA at 2 criteria and Tukey's test were used. A greater apoptotic index was observed in the M30 (52.79 ± 9.01) and M30 + S30 (62.43 ± 8.52) groups when compared with the S30 (37.94 ± 5.94) and S60 (31.85 ± 9.18) groups, respectively (p < 0.05). There was no difference between M30 + MP30 (30.98 ± 6.19) and S60 (31.85 ± 9.18) groups regarding apoptotic index. Chronic administration of midazolam has been shown to increase the number of apoptotic cells in the parotid glands of rats. However, pilocarpine inhibited this effect, thus inhibiting the apoptosis.
2012-04-16·Chemical Research in Toxicology3区 · 医学
Oxidative Stress Induced by Pure and Iron-Doped Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles in Subtoxic Conditions
3区 · 医学
作者: Napierska, Dorota ; Rabolli, Virginie ; Thomassen, Leen C. J. ; Dinsdale, David ; Princen, Catherine ; Gonzalez, Laetitia ; Poels, Katrien L. C. ; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline ; Lison, Dominique ; Martens, Johan A. ; Hoet, Peter H.
Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO₂-NPs) have found broad applications in industry and are currently intensively studied for potential uses in medical and biomedical fields. Several studies have reported cytotoxic and inflammatory responses induced by SiO₂-NPs in different cell types. The present study was designed to examine the association of oxidative stress markers with SiO₂-NP induced cytotoxicity in human endothelial cells. We used pure monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles of two sizes (16 and 60 nm; S16 and S60) and a positive control, iron-doped nanosilica (16 nm; SFe), to study the generation of hydroxyl radicals (HO·) in cellular-free conditions and oxidative stress in cellular systems. We investigated whether SiO₂-NPs could influence intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, increase lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenal (HAE) concentrations), and up-regulate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression in the studied cells. None of the particles, except SFe, produced ROS in cell-free systems. We found significant modifications for all parameters in cells treated with SFe nanoparticles. At cytotoxic doses of S16 (40-50 μg/mL), we detected weak alterations of intracellular glutathione (4 h) and a marked induction of HO-1 mRNA (6 h). Cytotoxic doses of S60 elicited similar responses. Preincubation of cells being exposed to SiO₂-NPs with an antioxidant (5 mM N-acetylcysteine, NAC) significantly reduced the cytotoxic activity of S16 and SFe (when exposed up to 25 and 50 μg/mL, respectively) but did not protect cells treated with S60. Preincubation with NAC significantly reduced HO-1 mRNA expression in cells treated with SFe but did not have any effect on HO-1 mRNA level in cell exposed to S16 and S60. Our study demonstrates that the chemical composition of the silica nanoparticles is a dominant factor in inducing oxidative stress.