Structural insights into the bi-specific cross-over dual variable antibody architecture by cryo-EM.
作者: David Fernandez-Martinez ; Mark D Tully ; Gordon Leonard ; Magali Mathieu ; Eaazhisai Kandiah
Multi-specific antibodies (msAbs) are being developed as next generation antibody-based therapeutics. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures, in the full antibody context, of their fragment antigen-binding (Fab) moieties with or without bound antigens is key to elucidating their therapeutic efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility of msAbs, a feature essential for their multi specificity, has hindered efforts in this direction. Cross-Over Dual Variable immunoglobulin (CODVIg) is a promising bispecific antibody format, designed to simultaneously target the interleukins IL4 and IL13. In this work we present the biophysical and structural characterisation of a CODVFab:IL13 complex in the full antibody context, using cryo-electron microscopy at an overall resolution of 4.2 Å. Unlike the 1:2 stoichiometry previously observed for CODVIg:IL4, CODVIg:IL13 shows a 1:1 stoichiometry. As well as providing details of the IL13-CODV binding interface, including the residues involved in the epitope-paratope region, the structure of CODVFab:IL13 also validates the use of labelling antibody as a new strategy for the single particle cryo-EM study of msAbs in complex with one, or more, antigens. This strategy reduced the inherent flexibility of the IL13 binding domain of CODV without inducing either structural changes at the epitope level or steric hindrance between the IL4 and IL13 binding regions of CODVIg. The work presented here thus also contributes to the development of methodology for the structural study of msAbs, a promising platform for cancer immunotherapy.
2013-03-01·Clinical and Vaccine Immunology
Identification of VAR2CSA domain-specific inhibitory antibodies of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 using a novel flow cytometry assay
作者: Oblakor, Harold ; Avril, Marion ; MacDonald, Nicholas J. ; Srinivasan, Prakash ; Reiter, Karine ; Anderson, Charles ; Holmes, Kevin L. ; Fried, Michal ; Duffy, Patrick E. ; Smith, Joseph D. ; Narum, David L. ; Miller, Louis H.
VAR2CSA, a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, is a leading candidate for use in vaccines to protect first-time mothers from placental malaria (PM). VAR2CSA, which is comprised of a series of six Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains, binds chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on placental syncytiotrophoblast. Several recombinant DBL domains have been shown to bind CSA. In order to identify and develop recombinant proteins suitable for clinical development, DBL2X and DBL3X, as well as their respective third subdomain (S3) from the FCR3 parasite clone, were expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded, and purified. All but DBL3X-S3 recombinant proteins bound to CSA expressed on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells but not to CHO-pgsA745 cells, which are CSA negative as determined by flow cytometry. All but DBL3X-S3 bound to CSA on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Purified IgG from rats and rabbits immunized with these four recombinant proteins bound homologous and some heterologous parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE). Using a novel flow cytometry inhibition-of-binding assay (flow-IBA), antibodies against DBL3X-S3 inhibited 35% and 45% of IE binding to CSA on CHO-K1 cells compared to results for soluble CSA (sCSA) and purified multigravida (MG) IgG, respectively, from areas in Tanzania to which malaria is endemic. Antibodies generated against the other domains provided little or no inhibition of IE binding to CSA on CHO-K1 cells as determined by the flow cytometry inhibition-of-binding assay. These results demonstrate for the first time the ability to identify antibodies to VAR2CSA DBL domains and subdomains capable of inhibiting VAR2CSA parasite-IE binding to CSA by flow cytometry. The flow cytometry inhibition-of-binding assay was robust and provided an accurate, reproducible, and reliable means to identify blocking of IE binding to CSA and promises to be significant in the development of a vaccine to protect pregnant women.
2010-08-01·Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease4区 · 医学
Detection of IgG-class antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella-zoster virus using a multiplex bead immunoassay
4区 · 医学
作者: Dhiman, Neelam ; Jespersen, Deborah J. ; Rollins, Leonard O. ; Harring, Julie A. ; Beito, Elaine M. ; Binnicker, Matthew J.
Serologic testing for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) IgG is traditionally performed by immunofluorescence assay or enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Although sensitive and specific, these methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and require separate assays for each analyte. This study evaluated the performance of the MMRV IgG AtheNA Multi-Lyte assay using nonclinically characterized serum specimens submitted to our laboratory for routine MMRV IgG testing. Mumps (n = 492) or rubella (n = 500) IgG were initially tested by enzyme-linked fluorescent antibody (ELFA), whereas measles (n = 494) or varicella (n = 497) were analyzed by EIA. Each sample was also tested by the AtheNA Multi-Lyte assay. Discordant results were retested by the predicate method and the multiplex assay, with further discrepancies being arbitrated by a third test. Compared to EIA/ELFA for MMRV IgG, the AtheNA assay demonstrated an overall agreement of 97.4%, 98.2%, 97.6%, and 100%, respectively. Use of this multiplex assay allows for the simultaneous detection of MMRV IgG, potentially decreasing cost, sample volume requirements, aliquot errors, and hands-on testing time.