Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Spiro Imidazobenzodiazepines to Identify Improved Inhaled Bronchodilators.
作者: Daniel A Webb ; Michelle J Meyer ; Kayode M Medubi ; Anika S Tylek ; Gene T Yocum ; M S Rashid Roni ; Nicolas M Zahn ; Sarah A Swartwout ; Ahmad K Masoud ; Charles W Emala ; Douglas C Stafford ; Leggy A Arnold
Novel gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) ligands structurally related to imidazobenzodiazepine MIDD0301 were synthesized using spiro-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs). These compounds demonstrated increased resistance to phase 2 metabolism and avoided the formation of a 6H isomer. Compound design was guided by molecular docking using the available crystal structure of the α1β3γ2 GABAAR and correlated with in vitro binding data. The carboxylic acid containing GABAAR ligands have high aqueous solubility, low permeability, and low cell toxicity. The inability of GABAAR ligands to cross the blood-brain barrier was confirmed in vivo by the absence of sensorimotor inhibition. Pharmacological activities at lung GABAARs were demonstrated by ex vivo relaxation of guinea pig airway smooth muscle and reduction of methacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in conscious mice. We identified bronchodilator 5c with an affinity of 9 nM for GABAARs that was metabolically stable in the presence of human and mouse microsomes.
2022-03-04·Drug development research3区 · 医学
Comparative pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of MIDD0301 and its (S) enantiomer.
3区 · 医学
作者: M S Rashid Roni ; Nicolas M Zahn ; Gene T Yocum ; Daniel A Webb ; Md Yeunus Mian ; Michelle J Meyer ; Anika S Tylek ; James M Cook ; Charles W Emala ; Douglas C Stafford ; Leggy A Arnold
MIDD0301 is being developed as an oral drug to relax airway smooth muscle (ASM) and reduce lung inflammation in asthma. We report a comparative study of MIDD0301 and its S isomer (MIDD0301S), and found that the compounds have equivalent affinity for γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R) expressed in rat brain, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 25.1 and 26.3 nM for the S and R enantiomers, respectively. Both compounds relaxed substance P contracted ASM within 30 min and neither enantiomer revealed affinity to 48 receptors in an off-target screen. Both enantiomers reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) with nebulized and oral dosing in two mouse models of bronchoconstriction. In A/J mice, which are very sensitive to methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, we observed reduction of AHR at 10.8 mg/kg MIDD0301 and 15 mg/kg MIDD0301S. Using oral administration, 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days of either enantiomer was sufficient to reduce AHR. In a model of severe airway inflammation induced by interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we observed reduction of AHR at 7.2 mg/kg for both enantiomers using nebulized administration, and at 100 mg/kg for oral administration. MIDD0301 and MIDD0301S did not undergo Phase I metabolism. Glucuronidation was observed for both compounds, whereas only MIDD0301 formed the corresponding glucoside in the presence of kidney microsomes. Pharmacokinetic analysis identified glucuronides as the major metabolite with concentrations up to 20-fold more than the parent compound. MIDD0301 glucuronide and MIDD0301 taurine bind GABAA Rs, although 10-fold weaker than MIDD0301. In mouse blood, the taurine adduct was only observed for MIDD0301. Overall, both compounds exhibited similar receptor binding and pharmacodynamic properties with subtle differences in metabolism and greater oral availability and blood concentrations of MIDD0301S.
Development of Inhaled GABA Receptor Modulators to Improve Airway Function in Bronchoconstrictive Disorders
作者: Zahn, Nicolas M. ; Roni, M. S. Rashid ; Yocum, Gene T. ; Meyer, Michelle J. ; Webb, Daniel A. ; Mian, Yeunus Md ; Cook, James M. ; Stafford, Douglas C. ; Emala, Charles W. ; Arnold, Leggy A.
We report the modification of MIDD0301, an imidazodiazepine GABAA receptor (GABAAR) ligand, using two alkyl substituents. We developed PI310 with a 6-(4-phenylbutoxy)hexyl chain as used in the long-acting β2-agonist salmeterol and PI320 with a poly(ethylene glycol) chain as used to improve the brain:plasma ratio of naloxegol, a naloxone analogue. Both imidazodiazepines showed affinity toward the GABAAR binding site of clonazepam, with IC50 values of 576 and 242 nM, respectively. Molecular docking analysis, using the available α1β3γ2 GABAAR structural data, suggests binding of the diazepine core between the α1+/γ2- interface, whereas alkyl substituents are located outside the binding site and thus interact with the protein surface and solvent molecules. The physicochemical properties of these compounds are very different. The solubility of PI310 is low in water. PEGylation of PI320 significantly improves aqueous solubility and cell permeability. Neither compound is toxic in HEK293 cells following exposure at >300 μM for 18 h. Ex vivo studies using guinea pig tracheal rings showed that PI310 was unable to relax the constricted airway smooth muscle. In contrast, PI320 induced muscle relaxation at organ bath concentrations as low as 5 μM, with rapid onset (15 min) at 25 μM. PI320 also reduced airway hyper-responsiveness in vivo in a mouse model of steroid-resistant lung inflammation induced by intratracheal challenge with INFγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). At nebulized doses of 7.2 mg/kg, PI320 and albuterol were equally effective in reducing airway hyper-responsiveness. Ten minutes after nebulization, the lung concentration of PI320 was 50-fold that of PI310, indicating superior availability of PI320 when nebulized as an aqueous solution. Overall, PI320 is a promising inhaled drug candidate to quickly relax airway smooth muscle in bronchoconstrictive disorders, such as asthma. Future studies will evaluate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of PI320 when administered orally.