Long-term effect of neonatal inhibition of APP gamma-secretase on hippocampal development in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome
2区 · 医学
作者: Stagni, Fiorenza ; Raspanti, Alessandra ; Giacomini, Andrea ; Guidi, Sandra ; Emili, Marco ; Ciani, Elisabetta ; Giuliani, Alessandro ; Bighinati, Andrea ; Calza, Laura ; Magistretti, Jacopo ; Bartesaghi, Renata
Neurogenesis impairment is considered a major determinant of the intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition caused by triplication of chromosome 21. Previous evidence obtained in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS showed that the triplicated gene APP (amyloid precursor protein) is critically involved in neurogenesis alterations. In particular, excessive levels of AICD (amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain) resulting from APP cleavage by gamma-secretase increase the transcription of Ptch1, a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptor that keeps the mitogenic Shh pathway repressed. Previous evidence showed that neonatal treatment with ELND006, an inhibitor of gamma-secretase, reinstates the Shh pathway and fully restores neurogenesis in Ts65Dn pups. In the framework of potential therapies for DS, it is extremely important to establish whether the positive effects of early intervention are retained after treatment cessation. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to establish whether early treatment with ELND006 leaves an enduring trace in the brain of Ts65Dn mice. Ts65Dn and euploid pups were treated with ELND006 in the postnatal period P3-P15 and the outcome of treatment was examined at ~one month after treatment cessation. We found that in treated Ts65Dn mice the pool of proliferating cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and total number of granule neurons were still restored as was the number of pre- and postsynaptic terminals in the stratum lucidum of CA3, the site of termination of the mossy fibers from the DG. Accordingly, patch-clamp recording from field CA3 showed functional normalization of the input to CA3. Unlike in field CA3, the number of pre- and postsynaptic terminals in the DG of treated Ts65Dn mice was no longer fully restored. The finding that many of the positive effects of neonatal treatment were retained after treatment cessation provides proof of principle demonstration of the efficacy of early inhibition of gamma-secretase for the improvement of brain development in DS.
2015-10-01·Neurobiology of Disease2区 · 医学
Inhibition of APP gamma-secretase restores Sonic Hedgehog signaling and neurogenesis in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome
2区 · 医学
作者: Giacomini, Andrea ; Stagni, Fiorenza ; Trazzi, Stefania ; Guidi, Sandra ; Emili, Marco ; Brigham, Elizabeth ; Ciani, Elisabetta ; Bartesaghi, Renata
Neurogenesis impairment starting from early developmental stages is a key determinant of intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS). Previous evidence provided a causal relationship between neurogenesis impairment and malfunctioning of the mitogenic Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway. In particular, excessive levels of AICD (amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain), a cleavage product of the trisomic gene APP (amyloid precursor protein) up-regulate transcription of Ptch1 (Patched1), the Shh receptor that keeps the pathway repressed. Since AICD results from APP cleavage by γ-secretase, the goal of the current study was to establish whether treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor normalizes AICD levels and restores neurogenesis in trisomic neural precursor cells. We found that treatment with a selective γ-secretase inhibitor (ELND006; ELN) restores proliferation in neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. This effect was accompanied by reduction of AICD and Ptch1 levels and was prevented by inhibition of the Shh pathway with cyclopamine. Treatment of Ts65Dn mice with ELN in the postnatal period P3-P15 restored neurogenesis in the SVZ and hippocampus, hippocampal granule cell number and synapse development, indicating a positive impact of treatment on brain development. In addition, in the hippocampus of treated Ts65Dn mice there was a reduction in the expression levels of various genes that are transcriptionally regulated by AICD, including APP, its origin substrate. Inhibitors of γ-secretase are currently envisaged as tools for the cure of Alzheimer's disease because they lower βamyloid levels. Current results provide novel evidence that γ-secretase inhibitors may represent a strategy for the rescue of neurogenesis defects in DS.
2012·Drug Delivery2区 · 医学
Development of ALZET osmotic pump compatible solvent compositions to solubilize poorly soluble compounds for preclinical studies
2区 · 医学
作者: Gullapalli, Rampurna ; Wong, Angelina ; Brigham, Elizabeth ; Kwong, Grace ; Wadsworth, Angie ; Willits, Christopher ; Quinn, Kevin ; Goldbach, Erich ; Samant, Bhushan
Hydrophilic, non-aqueous solvents are frequently used to solubilize poorly water soluble compounds for use in ALZET® osmotic pumps used during the discovery and preclinical stages. Though these solvents exhibit the potential to solubilize several poorly soluble compounds, the solubilized compounds are prone to crystallization up on contact with aqueous fluids in vitro and in vivo. Crystallization of a compound can potentially cause pain at the release site, erratic blood levels, and uneven or delayed pharmacokinetic profiles.
In this study, we discussed the development of ALZET® pump compatible hydrophilic, non-aqueous vehicles that solubilized two poorly soluble model compounds (ELND006 and ELN 481594) and prevented their crystallization from solutions in vitro and in vivo.
The selected formulations were filled into the pumps at three concentrations for each model compound and investigated for their compatibility with the pumps and the subcutaneous tissue of mice where the pump was inserted.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
The results showed that the formulations were stable physically with no crystallization and chemically with no degradation and were compatible with the pump and animal tissue. The plasma concentration of ELND006 decreased with time at each dose. The extent of the time-dependent decrease in ELND006 plasma levels increased as the amount of dose delivered increased. This time and dose dependent decrease in ELND006 plasma concentrations was attributed to the known auto-induction of hepatic enzymes by the compound. In contrast, the plasma concentration of ELN 481594 increased significantly at higher dose, likely due to accumulation of the compound.