The global reliance on eggs to produce most influenza vaccines has several limitations and new approaches to influenza vaccine production are needed. Herein we describe a phase 3, lot-to-lot consistency trial (NCT03321968) of a quadrivalent, recombinant, virus-like particle (VLP) influenza vaccine produced in plants. This platform is based on transient expression of proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana and yields VLPs bearing hemagglutinin (HA) protein trimers that are combined in a quadrivalent vaccine (QVLP).
The HAs targeted in this study were A/California/07/2009 H1N1, A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 H3N2, B/Brisbane/60/08 and B/Phuket/3073/2013: recommended for the 2016-2017 Northern Hemisphere season. Healthy adults 18-49 years of age (n = 1200) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a 0.5 mL intramuscular injection of QVLP (30 μg HA/strain) from three sequential lots. Local and systemic reactions were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination and blood was collected pre-vaccination and at day 21 (D21) after vaccination to measure hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies.
Subject demographics were similar between groups and compliance with study procedures was 96.3%. The study population was 54.8% female, the mean age (±SD) was 29.9 ± 9.01 and the racial distribution was 77.8% Caucasian, 15.6% Asian, 5.8% Black/African American and 0.8% other. The HI responses met the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research criteria for seroconversion (SCR ≥ 40%) and seroprotection rates (SPR ≥ 70%). The geometric mean fold rise in HI titers was ≥ 2.5 for all 4 strains for each lot. Lot-to-lot consistency was met with the 95% confidence intervals of the D21 mean geometric titre ratios falling between 0.67 and 1.5 for all four strains. No safety concerns were identified. Solicited adverse events were generally mild and transient: typical for what is reported after inactivated influenza vaccines.
This study supported earlier findings of the safety profile and immunogenicity of the plant-derived QVLP and demonstrated the consistency with which it can be produced.
2017-08-01·Virology3区 · 医学
Stockpiled pre-pandemic H5N1 influenza virus vaccines with AS03 adjuvant provide cross-protection from H5N2 clade 18.104.22.168 virus challenge in ferrets
3区 · 医学
作者: Sun, Xiangjie ; Belser, Jessica A. ; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A. ; Creager, Hannah M. ; Guo, Zhu ; Jefferson, Stacie N. ; Liu, Feng ; York, Ian A. ; Stevens, James ; Maines, Taronna R. ; Jernigan, Daniel B. ; Katz, Jacqueline M. ; Levine, Min Z. ; Tumpey, Terrence M.
Avian influenza viruses, notably H5 subtype viruses, pose a continuous threat to public health due to their pandemic potential. In recent years, influenza virus H5 subtype split vaccines with novel oil-in-water emulsion based adjuvants (e.g. AS03, MF59) have been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and able to induce broad immune responses in clinical trials, providing strong scientific support for vaccine stockpiling. However, whether such vaccines can provide protection from infection with emerging, antigenically distinct clades of H5 viruses has not been adequately addressed. Here, we selected two AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccines from the US national pre-pandemic influenza vaccine stockpile and assessed whether the 2004-05 vaccines could provide protection against a 2014 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus (A/northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014), a clade 22.214.171.124 virus responsible for mass culling of poultry in North America. Ferrets received two doses of adjuvanted vaccine containing 7.5µg of hemagglutinin (HA) from A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (clade 1) or A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) virus either in a homologous or heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime. We found that both vaccination regimens elicited robust antibody responses against the 2004-05 vaccine viruses and could reduce virus-induced morbidity and viral replication in the lower respiratory tract upon heterologous challenge despite the low level of cross-reactive antibody titers to the challenge H5N2 virus. This study supports the value of existing stockpiled 2004-05 influenza H5N1 vaccines, combined with AS03-adjuvant for early use in the event of an emerging pandemic with H5N2-like clade 126.96.36.199 viruses.
2013-12-01·Molecular Immunology3区 · 医学
The antigenic architecture of the hemagglutinin of influenza H5N1 viruses
3区 · 医学
作者: Velkov, Tony ; Ong, Chi ; Baker, Mark A. ; Kim, Hyunsuh ; Li, Jian ; Nation, Roger L. ; Huang, Johnny X. ; Cooper, Matthew A. ; Rockman, Steve
Human infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 is associated with a high mortality and morbidity. H5N1 continues to transmit from poultry to the human population, raising serious concerns about its pandemic potential. Current influenza H5N1 vaccines are based upon the elicitation of a neutralizing antibody (Ab) response against the major epitope regions of the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA). However, antigenic drift mutations in immune-dominant regions on the HA structure allow the virus to escape Ab neutralization. Epitope mapping using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) helps define mechanisms of antigenic drift, neutralizing escape and can facilitate pre-pandemic vaccine design. This review explores the current knowledge base of the antigenic sites of the H5N1 HA molecule. The relationship between the epitope architecture of the H5N1 HA, antigenic evolution of the different H5N1 lineages and the antigenic complexity of the H5N1 virus lineages that constitute potential pandemic strains are discussed in detail.