Free radical and calcium buffering mechanisms are implicated in cochlear cell damage that has been induced by sound trauma. Thus in this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a novel dual inhibitor of calpains and of lipid peroxidation (BN 82270) on the permanent hearing and hair cell loss induced by sound trauma. Perfusion of BN 82270 into the scala tympani of the guinea pig cochlea prevented the formation of calpain-cleaved fodrin, translocation of cytochrome c, DNA fragmentation and hair cell degeneration caused by sound trauma. This was confirmed by functional tests in vivo, showing a clear dose-dependent reduction of permanent hearing loss (ED50 = 4.07 microM) with almost complete protection at 100 microM. Furthermore, BN82270 still remained effective even when applied onto the round window membrane after sound trauma had occurred, within a therapeutic window of 24 h. This indicates that BN 82270 may be of potential therapeutic value in treating the cochlea after sound trauma.
2006-08-01·Journal of Neurochemistry2区 · 医学
Calpain inhibitors and antioxidants act synergistically to prevent cell necrosis: effects of the novel dual inhibitors (cysteine protease inhibitor and antioxidant) BN 82204 and its pro-drug BN 82270
Cell death is a common feature observed in neurodegenerative disorders, and is often associated with calpain activation and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the use of calpain inhibitors and antioxidants in combination to protect cells against necrosis. Maitotoxin (MTX), which induces a massive influx of calcium, was used to provoke neuronal cell death. This toxin increased, in a concentration-dependent manner, both calpain activity and ROS formation. Calpain inhibitors or antioxidants inhibited MTX-induced necrosis only marginally (below 20%), whereas their association protected against cell death by 40-66% in a synergistic manner. BN 82204, which possesses both calpain-cathepsin L inhibitory and antioxidant properties, and its acetylated pro-drug BN 82270, totally protected cells at 100 microm. The pro-drug BN 82270, which had better cell penetration, was twice as effective as the active principle BN 82204 in protecting glioma C6 or neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells against death. These results suggest the potential therapeutic relevance of using a single molecule with multiple activities (cysteine protease inhibitor/antioxidant), and warrant further in vivo investigations in models of neuronal disorders.
2006-06-01·American Journal of Physiology2区 · 医学
Treatment of rats with calpain inhibitors prevents sepsis-induced muscle proteolysis independent of atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 expression
2区 · 医学
作者: Fareed, Moin U. ; Evenson, Amy R. ; Wei, Wei ; Menconi, Michael ; Poylin, Vitaliy ; Petkova, Victoria ; Pignol, Bernadette ; Hasselgren, Per-Olof
Muscle wasting in sepsis is a significant clinical problem because it results in muscle weakness and fatigue that may delay ambulation and increase the risk for thromboembolic and pulmonary complications. Treatments aimed at preventing or reducing muscle wasting in sepsis, therefore, may have important clinical implications. Recent studies suggest that sepsis-induced muscle proteolysis may be initiated by calpain-dependent release of myofilaments from the sarcomere, followed by ubiquitination and degradation of the myofilaments by the 26S proteasome. In the present experiments, treatment of rats with one of the calpain inhibitors calpeptin or BN82270 inhibited protein breakdown in muscles from rats made septic by cecal ligation and puncture. The inhibition of protein breakdown was not accompanied by reduced expression of the ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is regulated independent of the calpain system in septic muscle. When incubated muscles were treated in vitro with calpain inhibitor, protein breakdown rates and calpain activity were reduced, consistent with a direct effect in skeletal muscle. Additional experiments suggested that the effects of BN82270 on muscle protein breakdown may, in part, reflect inhibited cathepsin L activity, in addition to inhibited calpain activity. When cultured myoblasts were transfected with a plasmid expressing the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin, the increased protein breakdown rates in dexamethasone-treated myoblasts were reduced, supporting a role of calpain activity in atrophying muscle. The present results suggest that treatment with calpain inhibitors may prevent sepsis-induced muscle wasting.