2022-03-09·Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology4区 · 生物学
Strategies to Reduce the On-Target Platelet Toxicity of Bcl-xL Inhibitors: PROTACs, SNIPERs and Prodrug-Based Approaches.
4区 · 生物学
作者: Arvind Negi ; Anne Sophie Voisin-Chiret
Apoptosis is a highly regulated cellular process. Aberration in apoptosis is a common characteristic of various disorders. Therefore, proteins involved in apoptosis are prime targets in multiple therapies. Bcl-xL is an antiapoptotic protein. Compared to other antiapoptotic proteins, the expression of Bcl-xL is common in solid tumors and, to an extent, in some leukemias and lymphomas. The overexpression of Bcl-xL is also linked to survival and chemoresistance in cancer and senescent cells. Therefore, Bcl-xL is a promising anticancer and senolytic target. Various nanomolar range Bcl-xL inhibitors have been developed. ABT-263 was successfully identified as a Bcl-xL /Bcl-2 dual inhibitor. But it failed in the clinical trial (phase-II) because of its on-target platelet toxicity, which also implies an essential role of Bcl-xL protein in the survival of human platelets. Classical Bcl-xL inhibitor designs utilize occupancy-driven pharmacology with typical shortcomings (such as dose-dependent off-target and on-target platelet toxicities). Hence, event-driven pharmacology-based approaches, such as proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) and SNIPERs (specific non-genetic IAP-based protein erasers) have been developed. The development of Bcl-xL based PROTACs was expected, as 600 E3-ligases are available in humans, while some (such as cereblon (CRBN), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)) are relatively less expressed in platelets. Therefore, E3 ligase ligand-based Bcl-xL PROTACs (CRBN: XZ424, XZ739; VHL: DT2216, PZ703b, 753b) showed a significant improvement in platelet therapeutic index than their parent molecules (ABT-263: DT2216, PZ703b, 753b, XZ739, PZ15227; A1155463: XZ424). Other than their distinctive pharmacology, PROTACs are molecularly large, which limits their cell permeability and plays a role in improving their cell selectivity. We also discuss prodrug-based approaches, such as antibody-drug conjugates (ABBV-155), phosphate prodrugs (APG-1252), dendrimer conjugate (AZD0466), and glycosylated conjugates (Nav-Gal). Studies of in-vitro, in-vivo, structure-activity relationships, biophysical characterization, and status of preclinical/clinical inhibitors derived from these strategies are also discussed in the review.
2020-04-15·European journal of medicinal chemistry1区 · 医学
Discovery of PROTAC BCL-XL degraders as potent anticancer agents with low on-target platelet toxicity.
1区 · 医学
作者: Xuan Zhang ; Dinesh Thummuri ; Xingui Liu ; Wanyi Hu ; Peiyi Zhang ; Sajid Khan ; Yaxia Yuan ; Daohong Zhou ; Guangrong Zheng
Anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL plays a key role in tumorigenesis and cancer chemotherapy resistance, rendering it an attractive target for cancer treatment. However, BCL-XL inhibitors such as ABT-263 cannot be safely used in the clinic because platelets solely depend on BCL-XL to maintain their viability. To reduce the on-target platelet toxicity associated with the inhibition of BCL-XL, we designed and synthesized PROTAC BCL-XL degraders that recruit CRBN or VHL E3 ligase because both of these enzymes are poorly expressed in human platelets compared to various cancer cell lines. We confirmed that platelet-toxic BCL-XL/2 dual inhibitor ABT-263 can be converted into platelet-sparing CRBN/VHL-based BCL-XL specific degraders. A number of BCL-XL degraders are more potent in killing cancer cells than their parent compound ABT-263. Specifically, XZ739, a CRBN-dependent BCL-XL degrader, is 20-fold more potent than ABT-263 against MOLT-4 T-ALL cells and has >100-fold selectivity for MOLT-4 cells over human platelets. Our findings further demonstrated the utility of PROTAC technology to achieve tissue selectivity through recruiting differentially expressed E3 ligases.