Identification of potential targets against SARS-CoV-2 of antiviral drugs based on photoaffinity probes.
作者: Yuexiang Ma ; Jin Wang ; Xiaoyan Pan ; Jie Zhang ; Yuanyuan Shan
Facing the sudden outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is extremely urgent to develop effective antiviral drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Drug repurposing is a promising strategy for the treatment of COVID-19. To identify the precise target protein of marketed medicines, we initiate a chemical biological program to identify precise target of potential antivirus drugs. In this study, two types of recombinant human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 RdRp protein capturing probes with various photoaffinity labeling units were designed and synthesized based on the structure of FDA-approved drugs stavudine, remdesivir, acyclovir, and aladenosine. Fortunately, it was found that one novel photoaffinity probe, RD-1, could diaplayed good affinity with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp around the residue ARG_553. In addition, RD-1 probe also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against 3CLpro protease. Taken together, our findings will elucidate the structural basis for the efficacy of marketed drugs, and explore a rapid and efficient strategy of drug repurposing based on the identification of new targets. Moreover, these results could also provide a scientific basis for the clinical application of marketed drugs.
2017-08-24·Blood1区 · 医学
How I treat first relapse of myeloma
1区 · 医学
作者: Harousseau, Jean Luc ; Attal, Michel
The standard treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma has been either lenalidomide-dexamethasone (RD) or bortezomib-dexamethasone (VD) but it is changing rapidly for 2 reasons. First, lenalidomide and bortezomib are currently used in frontline treatment and many patients become resistant to these agents early in the course of their disease. Second, 6 second-line new agents have been recently developed and offer new possibilities (pomalidomide, carfilzomib and ixazomib, panobinostat, elotuzumab, and daratumumab). Recent randomized studies have shown that triple combinations adding 1 of these new agents (except pomalidomide) to the RD or VD regimens were superior to the double combinations in terms of response rate and progression-free survival (PFS). Their place in the treatment of first relapse is discussed here. Among these agents, daratumumab is clearly a breakthrough and daratumumab-based combinations might become the preferred option in the near future. However, all of these drugs are expensive and are not available or affordable in all countries. We propose a decision algorithm for first relapse in fit patients with the objective of achieving the best PFS. The choice of salvage regimen is based on lenalidomide/bortezomib resistance, daratumumab availability, and cost. Autologous transplantation should be considered in younger patients if not used upfront.
2015-06-01·Neuropharmacology2区 · 医学
Neuroprotective effects of 5-(4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidinone in MPTP induced Parkinsonism model in mice
2区 · 医学
作者: Ren, Zhili ; Yang, Nan ; Ji, Chao ; Zheng, Ji ; Wang, Tao ; Liu, Yanyong ; Zuo, Pingping
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAergic) system. Present treatment targeting to DAergic system solely ameliorated the symptoms but failed to retard the DAergic neuron degeneration, therefore new therapeutic methods aiming at preventing or delaying the neurodegenerative process are urgently needed. In the present study, we found that 5-(4-hydroxy-3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (RD-1), a compound derived from rhodanine, protected DAergicneurons from neurotoxicity of MPTP/MPP(+). Firstly, RD-1 significantly improved the locomotor ability in the MPTP mice model, and elevated the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cell numbers in substantianigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the integrated optical density (IOD) of TH-positive nerve fibers in striatum respectively. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in pathogenesis of PD, thereby we investigated the molecular mechanisms of RD-1 against MPTP/MPP(+) neurotoxicity, focusing on its effects on the mitochondrial dysfunction. Immunoblotting analysis showed that RD-1 significantly elevated the Parkin and Miro2 expression levels in acute MPTP treated mice, and improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis in MPP(+)-treated Neuro-2a cells. Moreover, RD-1attenuated impaired mitochondrial transport and vesicle release dysfunction evoked by MPP(+) cytotoxicity in cultured primary mesencephalic neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that improving the mitochondrial dysfunction may be a good choice to delay the neurodegenerative progression commonly associated with PD.