April 15, 2021 06:00 UTC
BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- PureTech Health plc (Nasdaq: PRTC, LSE: PRTC) ("PureTech" or the "Company"), a clinical-stage biotherapeutics company dedicated to discovering, developing and commercializing highly differentiated medicines for devastating diseases, today announced its results for the year ended December 31, 2020 as well as its cash balance as of the first quarter ended March 31, 2021. The following information represents select highlights from the full report, which will be filed as an Exhibit to Form 20-F with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission and is also available at .
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PureTech announces Annual Results for year ended December 31, 2020. Company to host a webcast and conference call at 9:00am EDT on April 15, 2021. (Graphic: Business Wire)
Webcast and conference call details
Members of the PureTech Management Team will host a conference call at 9:00am EDT / 2:00pm BST today, April 15, to discuss these results. A live webcast and presentation slides will be available on the investors section of PureTech’s website under the Events and Presentations tab. To join by phone, please dial:
United Kingdom: 0800 640 6441
United Kingdom (Local): 020 3936 2999
United States: 1 855 9796 654
United States (Local): 1 646 664 1960
All other locations: +44 20 3936 2999
Access code: 440629
For those unable to listen to the call live, a replay will be available on the PureTech website.
Commenting on the annual results, Daphne Zohar, Founder and Chief Executive Officer of PureTech said:
“2020 was a year like no other. For our team at PureTech, it was defined both by transformational progress and tremendous resilience, as we realized significant financial, clinical and regulatory milestones while navigating the challenges of a global pandemic. I am immensely proud of our team’s dedication to our mission: develop groundbreaking medicines for serious diseases for which patients currently have few options.
“We now have 26 therapeutics and therapeutic candidates being advanced through our Wholly Owned Pipeline or our Founded Entities. This includes two therapeutics that have received FDA clearance and European marketing authorization - Gelesis’ Plenity® and Akili’s EndeavorRxTM – both of which were initially conceived of and advanced by the PureTech team to address urgent medical needs for patients. We expect a broader U.S. launch for both therapeutics this year.
“We made notable progress in the advancement of our Wholly Owned Pipeline this year, initiating four clinical trials and reporting the successful completion of one clinical trial. We are currently evaluating two candidates – LYT-100 and LYT-200 – across three different indications where there is serious need. I am also pleased to have expanded our Wholly Owned Pipeline with the nomination of a new therapeutic candidate, LYT-300 (oral allopregnanolone), which we expect to enter a clinical trial by the end of 2021.
“Additionally, we continued to solidify our financial position by generating $350.6 million in 2020 and an additional $118 million in the February 2021 post-period via the monetization of partial stakes in Founded Entities. We also successfully completed a listing of American Depository Shares on the Nasdaq Global Market in November 2020, which enables us to broaden access to an international investor base as we maintained our premium listing on the London Stock Exchange and our membership in the FTSE 250.
“We are well-positioned for an exciting year ahead, which we expect will include multiple value drivers across our Wholly Owned Programs and our Founded Entities, including at least ten expected clinical trial initiations and nine expected readouts.
“I would like to thank our shareholders for their vision and continued support over the last year. Above all, I would like to thank the patients and clinicians working alongside us in our clinical trials. We are grateful for your support, humbled by your trust and inspired by your courage. You make possible the medical advances of the future.”
Continued advancement and growth of Wholly Owned Programs7
Our team, network and expertise in the BIG Axis has enabled the rapid advancement and growth of our Wholly Owned Programs. Focused on the lymphatic system and related immunological disorders, our Wholly Owned Pipeline currently consists of LYT-100, a clinical-stage therapeutic candidate we are pursuing for inflammatory and fibrotic conditions and disorders of lymphatic flow, LYT-200, a clinical therapeutic candidate targeting a foundational immunosuppressive protein, galectin-9, we are developing for the potential treatment of a range of cancer indications, LYT-210, a preclinical therapeutic candidate targeting immunomodulatory gamma delta-1 T cells we are developing for a range of cancer indications and autoimmune disorders and LYT-300, a preclinical therapeutic candidate we are developing for a range of neurological and neuropsychological conditions. Our Wholly Owned Programs also include three discovery platforms: Glyph™ – our synthetic lymphatic targeting chemistry platform – and Orasome™ – our oral biotherapeutics platform – both of which leverage absorption of dietary lipids to traffic therapeutics via the lymphatic system, and our meningeal lymphatics discovery research program for treating neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. Key developments included the following:
In November 2020, we announced the completion of a Phase 1 randomized, double-blind multiple ascending dose and food effect study of LYT-100, which was initiated in March 2020. The study demonstrated favorable proof-of-concept for LYT-100’s tolerability and pharmacokinetic, or PK, profile.
In December 2020, we announced the initiation of a global, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of LYT-100 in adults with Long COVID respiratory complications and related sequelae. Topline results are expected in the second half of 2021.
In December 2020, we announced the initiation of a Phase 2a proof-of-concept study of LYT-100 in patients with breast cancer-related, upper limb secondary lymphedema. Topline results are expected in the first half of 2022.
We are planning registration-enabling studies of LYT-100 for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or IPF, and potentially other progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases, or PF-ILDs, and we expect to provide additional guidance later this year.
In December 2020, we announced the initiation of our Phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate LYT-200 as a potential treatment for metastatic solid tumors, with topline results anticipated in the fourth quarter of 2021. The primary objective of the Phase 1 portion of the adaptive Phase 1/2 trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of escalating doses of LYT-200 in order to identify a dose to carry forward into the Phase 2 portion of the trial. The Phase 1 portion will also assess the PK and pharmacodynamic, or PD, profiles of LYT-200. Pending favorable topline results, we intend to initiate the Phase 2 expansion cohort portion of the trial, which is designed to evaluate LYT-200 either alone and/or in combination with chemotherapy and anti-PD-1 therapy for the treatment of multiple solid tumor types, including pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma, or CCA.
In June 2020, we presented a scientific poster for LYT-200 at the American Association for Cancer Research, or AACR, 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting. New preclinical results were presented that established galectin-9 as a novel target for cancer immunotherapy.
LYT-300 and the Glyph™ Technology Platform
We are advancing our Glyph technology platform, which is designed to employ the body’s natural lipid absorption and transport process to orally administer drugs via the lymphatic system. We have successfully extended the platform to encompass more than 20 molecules as well as a range of novel linker chemistries that have demonstrated promising lymphatic targeting in preclinical studies. Our most advanced Glyph candidate, LYT-300, is an oral form of allopregnanolone, an FDA-approved drug, which is a natural neurosteroid that we believe may be applicable to a range of neurological conditions. We expect to initiate a clinical trial with LYT-300 by the end of 2021.
In the February 2021 post-period, preclinical proof-of-concept for our Glyph technology was published in the Journal of Controlled Release. The results demonstrate the ability of this platform to directly target gut lymphatics with an orally dosed small molecule immunomodulator.
Orasome™ Technology Platform
We progressed our Orasome technology platform, which utilizes multiple vesicle components, including those isolated from milk. Our Orasome vesicles are being designed to transport macromolecular medicines to selected mucosal cell types of the intestinal tract. In 2021, we expect preclinical proof-of-concept data and anticipate additional preclinical results from a non-human primate proof-of-concept study. This work could lay the foundation for investigational new drug, or IND, application enabling clinical studies for one or more additional therapeutic candidates to be included in our Wholly Owned Pipeline.
On November 16, 2020, we commenced trading of American Depository Shares, or ADSs, on the Nasdaq Global Market under the ticker symbol “PRTC” (the “U.S. Listing”). In addition to the U.S. Listing, we maintain our premium listing on the Official List of the UK Financial Conduct Authority and trading on the main market of the London Stock Exchange. Our ticker symbol in the UK is also PRTC, and we are a member of the FTSE250 index.
In October 2020, we announced the appointment of biotech entrepreneur Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw to our board of directors. Ms. Shaw brings extensive experience in biotherapeutics, strategic leadership, financial and business development and a dedication to improving patients’ lives to our board of industry leaders.
In the January 2021 post-period, we announced that George Farmer, Ph.D., was appointed as Chief Financial Officer. Dr. Farmer is responsible for all aspects of our finances, including capital markets strategy and execution, strategic and financial planning and financial reporting.
In 2020, we sold shares in our Founded Entities for cash consideration of $350.6 million, while in the February 2021 post-period we sold an additional one million shares in Karuna Therapeutics, Inc. for cash consideration of $118 million.
PureTech level cash and cash equivalents were $443.4 million as of March 31, 2021 1 and $349.4 million as of December 31, 2020 2 . We extended our cash runway guidance by one year into the first quarter of 2025.
and $349.4 million as of December 31, 2020 . We extended our cash runway guidance by one year into the first quarter of 2025. Consolidated cash and cash equivalents, which includes cash held at the PureTech level and at Controlled Founded Entities, were $486.5 million as of March 31, 2021 3 and $403.9 million as of December 31, 2020 4 .
and $403.9 million as of December 31, 2020 . PureTech’s Founded Entities raised $247.8 million in 20205 and an additional $473.2 million in the 2021 post-period6, almost all of which came from third parties.
Significant regulatory, clinical and financial momentum across PureTech’s Founded Entities8
PureTech’s Founded Entities have made significant progress advancing 22 therapeutics and therapeutic candidates, of which two have been cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and granted marketing authorization in the European Economic Area and 13 are clinical stage. Key developments included the following:
Founded Entities in which PureTech has a controlling interest or the right to receive royalties, in order of development stage:
Gelesis, Inc. (PureTech ownership: 19.3%; We also have a right to royalty payments as a percentage of net sales) In June 2020, Gelesis received approval to market Plenity ®9 with a Conformité Européenne, or CE, Mark as a class III medical device indicated for weight loss in overweight and obese adults with a Body Mass Index, or BMI, of 25-40 kg/m 2 , when used in conjunction with diet and exercise. In addition to its U.S. FDA clearance, Gelesis is now able to market Plenity ® throughout the European Economic Area and in other countries that recognize the CE Mark. Gelesis plans to bring Plenity to the U.S. first, where it has been available to a limited extent since the second half of 2019 through an early experience program and since 2020 via a beta launch while the company ramps up its commercial operations and inventory for a broader launch in the second half of 2021. In just one month of limited promotion and marketing investment during the limited launch, Gelesis acquired more new patients on Plenity, than any other branded prescription in the weight loss market. Gelesis also plans to seek FDA input on the requirements for expanding the Plenity label for treating adolescents. In June 2020, Gelesis announced a partnership with China Medical System Holdings Ltd., or CMS, for the commercialization of Plenity in China. Through the terms of the deal, CMS provided $35 million upfront in a combination of licensing fees and equity investment, with the potential for an additional $388 million in future milestone payments as well as royalties. In the second half of 2020, Gelesis initiated a Phase 3 study of GS500 in functional constipation. In November 2020, Gelesis’ collaborator Alessandra Silvestri, Ph.D., of the Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology and Microbiota at Humanitas Research Hospital, presented a poster on the therapeutic benefits of Gel-B (GS300) at The Liver Meeting, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, or AASLD, annual conference. The data demonstrated that, in a preclinical model, the proprietary therapeutic candidate reversed the damage to the intestines induced by a high fat diet and Gelesis believes that therapies exploiting the gut liver axis may offer a unique treatment option for metabolic liver disorders. Also in November 2020, Gelesis presented three posters at ObesityWeek 2020, the annual congress of The Obesity Society. Presentations included new data that showed that prediabetes and impaired beta cell function were associated with a dysfunctional gut barrier, a potential precursor to metabolic diseases; an additional analysis of Gelesis’ pivotal GLOW study suggested fasting plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance could be strong predictors of weight loss with Plenity; and a new in vitro beverage interaction study that demonstrated Plenity’s hydrogel maintained its properties in the presence of alcoholic or acidic drinks. In September 2020, Gelesis delivered one oral presentation and two poster presentations showcasing notable efficacy data for Plenity® at the European and International Congress on Obesity, or ECO-ICO 2020. In March 2020, Gelesis was named to Fast Company’s list of the World’s Most Innovative Companies for 2020.
Karuna Therapeutics, Inc. (PureTech ownership: 8.2%; We also have a right to royalty payments as a percentage of net sales) In June 2020, Karuna announced next steps in the EMERGENT program, the clinical program evaluating KarXT for the treatment of adults with schizophrenia, following the completion of a successful End-of-Phase 2 meeting with the FDA. In December 2020, Karuna announced the initiation of the Phase 3 EMERGENT-2 trial, the first of two Phase 3 five-week inpatient trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of KarXT for the treatment of acute psychosis in adults with schizophrenia. In May 2020, Karuna presented data from EMERGENT-1, the Phase 2 clinical trial evaluating KarXT for the treatment of acute psychosis in patients with schizophrenia, at the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology, or ASCP, 2020 Annual Meeting. The poster and oral presentation detailed new and previously reported efficacy and safety data from the Phase 2 clinical trial. In the first quarter of the 2021 post-period, Karuna announced the initiation of the Phase 3 EMERGENT-4 trial, a 52-week, outpatient, open-label long-term safety and tolerability extension trial of EMERGENT-2 and EMERGENT-3. In the February 2021 post-period, Karuna announced that results from the EMERGENT-1 Phase 2 clinical trial evaluating KarXT for the treatment of schizophrenia were published in the New England Journal of Medicine , or NEJM.
Follica, Incorporated (PureTech ownership: 78.2%; We also have a right to royalty payments as a percentage of net sales) In June 2020, Follica announced the completion of a successful End-of-Phase 2 meeting with the FDA for its lead program to treat male androgenetic alopecia, which supports the progression into Phase 3 development. The initiation of a Phase 3 registration program in male androgenetic alopecia is expected in 2021. In December 2020, Follica announced the publication of a pilot study evaluating scalp skin disruption to promote hair growth in female pattern hair loss, or FPHL, in International Journal of Women’s Dermatology. The pilot study, led by Maryanne M. Senna, M.D., an Assistant Professor of Dermatology at Harvard Medical School, demonstrated the treatment promoted hair growth over a four-month course of treatment. In the January 2021 post-period, Follica announced the appointment of two leaders in aesthetic medicine and dermatology to its Board of Directors. Tom Wiggans, former CEO of Dermira, joined as Executive Chairman with over 30 years of experience leading biopharmaceutical companies from the start-up stage to global commercialization, and Michael Davin, former CEO of Cynosure, joined as an Independent Director with over 30 years of experience in the medical device industry.
Vedanta Biosciences, Inc. (PureTech ownership: 49.5%) In June 2020, Vedanta announced topline Phase 1 clinical data in healthy volunteers, which showed that VE202, Vedanta’s orally-administered live biotherapeutic product, or LBP, candidate for inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD, was generally well-tolerated at all doses studied and demonstrated durable and dose-dependent colonization. The trial was conducted by Janssen Research & Development, LLC, and a more complete study dataset and analyses will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Vedanta expects to advance VE202 into a Phase 2 study for IBD in 2021. Vedanta has regained full rights to the program and will owe Janssen single-digit royalty payments on net sales of a commercialized product. In the January 2021 post-period, Vedanta announced a $25 million investment from Pfizer as part of the Pfizer Breakthrough Growth Initiative. The proceeds will fund the Phase 2 study of VE202 in IBD. Vedanta will retain control of all its programs and has granted Pfizer a right of first negotiation on VE202. In October 2020, additional data from a Phase 1 clinical study of VE202 in healthy volunteers was presented by Janssen Research & Development, LLC, at United European Gastroenterology, or UEG, Week 2020. The new UEG Week data presentation focused on the kinetics and durability of colonization from an 11-strain consortium of VE202 under various dosing and pre-treatment regimens. Vedanta has also continued to progress its three ongoing clinical trials of VE303, VE416 and VE800. In 2021, Vedanta anticipates topline results from a Phase 2 trial of VE303 in high-risk Clostridioides difficile infection, or CDI and a first-in-patient clinical trial of VE800 in combination with Bristol- Myers Squibb’s checkpoint inhibitor Opdivo® (nivolumab) in patients with select types of advanced or metastatic cancer. Topline results from a Phase 1/2 trial of VE416 for food allergy are expected in 2022. In June 2020, Vedanta strengthened its balance sheet with an additional $12 million in new equity and R&D collaboration funds, bringing its total Series C round to $71.1 million. In September 2020, Vedanta announced it has been awarded funding of $7.4 million, with the potential for up to an additional $69.5 million, from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, or BARDA, to advance clinical development of VE303 for high-risk CDI. Vedanta is the first-ever recipient of a BARDA award in the microbiome field.
Sonde Health, Inc. (PureTech ownership: 44.6%) In July 2020, Sonde launched Sonde One for Respiratory, a new voice-enabled health detection and monitoring app, to potentially help employers improve employee safety, meet government mandates and satisfy their own administrative needs as they reopen office doors in a COVID-19 environment. In August 2020, Sonde acquired NeuroLex Labs, a leading voice-enabled survey and data acquisition platform. The transaction did not involve any financial participation from PureTech. In November 2020, Sonde announced the launch of a new Developer Portal that provides organizations with access to Sonde’s advanced vocal biomarker-based health check technology. As part of the launch, Sonde has introduced a new self-serve application programming interface, or API, and documentation to allow developers to quickly, easily, and autonomously integrate Sonde’s voice-enabled respiratory symptoms checker into their own iOS and Android mobile applications. Sonde has collected over one million voice samples from over 80,000 subjects as a part of the ongoing validation of its platform, and it has also initiated research and development to expand its proprietary technology into Alzheimer’s disease, or AD, respiratory and cardiovascular disease, as well as other health and wellness conditions, including mental health.
Alivio Therapeutics, Inc. (PureTech ownership: 78.0%) Alivio continued to advance its targeted disease immunomodulation platform for the potential treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory disorders. Alivio expects an IND filing for ALV-107 for interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome, or IC/BPS, in 2021 and an IND for ALV-304 in IBD in 2023. Alivio is also evaluating the potential application of its proprietary platform to enable the oral administration of biologics in additional indications. In October 2020, Alivio announced a $3.3 million U.S. Department of Defense, or DoD, Technology/Therapeutic Development Award to advance its therapeutic candidate, ALV-304, for the treatment of IBD. The funds will support Alivio’s preclinical research and development activities to potentially enable the IND filing.
Entrega, Inc. (PureTech ownership: 72.9%) Entrega continued to advance its platform for the oral administration of biologics, vaccines and other drugs that are otherwise not efficiently absorbed when taken orally. As part of its collaboration with Eli Lilly, Entrega has continued to investigate the application of its peptide administration technology to certain Lilly therapeutic candidates. In 2020, the partnership was extended into 2021.
Founded Entities in which PureTech has an equity interest, in order of development stage:
Akili Interactive Labs, Inc. (PureTech ownership: 33.7%) In June 2020, Akili received clearance from the FDA to market EndeavorRx™ 10 (AKL-T01) as a prescription treatment for improving attention function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. Delivered through a captivating video game experience, EndeavorRx is indicated to improve attention function as measured by computer-based testing in children ages 8-12 years old with primarily inattentive or combined-type ADHD, who have a demonstrated attention issue. Akili plans to take a scaled approach to the commercial launch of EndeavorRx in 2021. The FDA clearance followed the April 2020 announcement that ENDEAVOR™ would be available for use for a limited time by children with ADHD and their families in response to new guidance from the FDA recognizing the need for access to certain low-risk clinically-validated digital health devices for psychiatric conditions, including ADHD, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also in June 2020, Akili announced that it had received approval to market EndeavorRx in Europe. Akili received a CE Mark certification for EndeavorRx as a prescription-only digital therapeutic intended for the treatment of attention and inhibitory control deficits in pediatric patients with ADHD. The CE Mark approval enables the future marketing of EndeavorRx in European Economic Area member countries. With a near-term focus on launching the EndeavorRx prescription treatment in the U.S. first, Akili is exploring expansion opportunities in Europe as part of its global strategy. In the April 2021 post-period, Akili announced collaborations with Weill Cornell Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and Vanderbilt University Medical Center to evaluate Akili digital therapeutic AKL-T01 as a treatment for patients with cognitive dysfunction following COVID-19 (also known as “COVID brain fog”). Under each collaboration, Akili will work with research teams at each institution to conduct two separate randomized, controlled clinical studies evaluating AKL-T01’s ability to target and improve cognitive functioning in COVID-19 survivors who have exhibited a deficit in cognition. In January 2020, Akili announced that its STARS Adjunct trial achieved its primary endpoint evaluating the effects of EndeavorRx in children with ADHD when used with and without stimulant medication. The study achieved its predefined primary efficacy outcome, demonstrating a statistically significant improvement in the ADHD Impairment Rating Scale, or IRS, from baseline after one month of treatment (p<0.001) in both children taking stimulant medications and in those not taking stimulants. In February 2020, The Lancet Digital Health journal published the results from Akili’s STARS-ADHD pivotal trial of AKL-T01. In October 2020, Akili announced multiple data presentations on EndeavorRx, including results from the STARS Adjunct trial, a multi-site open-label study designed to evaluate the impact of EndeavorRx on impairments in daily life in children with ADHD and inform prescribing practices. Also presented were analyses across four clinical trials of EndeavorRx, evaluating the impact of treatment on children’s attention function compared to normative ranges. The data were presented for the first time at the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, or AACAP, 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting. In the March 2021 post-period, Nature Digital Medicine published the full results from the STARS Adjunct trial.
Vor Biopharma Inc. (PureTech ownership: 8.6%) In the January 2021 post-period, Vor announced that the FDA had accepted the company’s IND application for VOR33. Vor plans to enroll the first patient in a Phase 1/2a clinical trial for VOR33 in the second quarter of 2021 and expects initial human engraftment and protection data from this trial to be reported in late 2021 or in the first half of 2022. In the February 2021 post-period, Vor announced the pricing of its initial public offering of common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “VOR.” The aggregate gross proceeds to Vor from the offering were approximately $203.4 million, before deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses payable by Vor. In July 2020, Vor announced a $110 million Series B financing to advance VOR33 into clinical trials, deepen its portfolio and accelerate the validation of additional targets for its scientific platform. In November 2020, Vor announced an exclusive licensing agreement with the National Cancer Institute, or NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, for intellectual property related to a clinical-stage anti-CD33 chimeric antigen receptor T cell, or CAR-T, therapy candidate, VCAR33. VCAR33 is currently being evaluated in a multi-site Phase 1/2 clinical trial in young adults and pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, and Vor expects initial monotherapy clinical proof-of-concept data in 2022, depending on investigator’s timing of data release. In January 2020, Vor held a pre-IND meeting with the FDA to gather feedback to assemble the data package for a potential IND filing.
PureTech Health today released its Annual Report for the year ended December 31, 2020. In compliance with the Financial Conduct Authority’s Listing Rule 9.6.3, the following documents have today been submitted to the National Storage Mechanism and will shortly be available for inspection at .
Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended December 31, 2020; and
Notice of 2021 Annual General Meeting.
Printed copies of these documents together with the Form of Proxy will be posted to shareholders. Copies are also available electronically on the Investor Relations section of the Company's website at .
PureTech’s 2021 Annual General Meeting (AGM) will be held on May 27, 2021 at 11:00am EDT / 4:00pm BST at PureTech’s headquarters, which is located at 6 Tide Street, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Please note that in light of COVID-19, it will not be possible for the Directors to travel to the United Kingdom. The Company has therefore decided to hold the AGM in the United States where most of the Directors are resident.
The Company’s preference had been to welcome shareholders in person to the 2021 AGM, particularly given the constraints faced in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, at present, in light of the limits on international travel and the public health guidance issued in the UK and the US and in order to protect the wellbeing of PureTech’s people and shareholders, the Company is proposing to hold the AGM as a closed meeting with the minimum attendance required to form a quorum. Accordingly, shareholders will not be permitted to attend the AGM in person but can be represented by the Chair of the meeting acting as their proxy.
The Company continues to closely monitor the evolving situation in respect of COVID-19 and its forthcoming AGM. The health and welfare of the Company's shareholders, as well as its employees and partners, is the number one priority.
The Company appreciates that a number of its shareholders are not resident or located in the United States and asks shareholders to participate in the AGM by submitting any questions in advance and voting via proxy rather than attending in person. As such, any specific questions on the business of the AGM and resolutions can be submitted ahead of meeting by e-mail to email@example.com (marked for the attention of Dr. Bharatt Chowrira).
Shareholders are encouraged to complete and return their votes by proxy, and to do so no later than 4:00 pm (BST) on Tuesday May 25, 2021. This will appoint the chair of the meeting as proxy and will ensure that votes will be counted even though attendance at the meeting is restricted. Details of how to appoint a proxy are set out in the notice of AGM.
PureTech will keep shareholders updated of any changes it may decide to make to the current plans for the AGM. Please visit the Company’s website at for the most up to date information.
About PureTech Health
PureTech is a clinical-stage biotherapeutics company dedicated to discovering, developing and commercializing highly differentiated medicines for devastating diseases, including inflammatory, fibrotic and immunological conditions, intractable cancers, lymphatic and gastrointestinal diseases and neurological and neuropsychological disorders, among others. The Company has created a broad and deep pipeline through the expertise of its experienced research and development team and its extensive network of scientists, clinicians and industry leaders. This pipeline, which is being advanced both internally and through PureTech's Founded Entities is comprised of 26 products and product candidates, including two that have received FDA clearance and European marketing authorization. All of the underlying programs and platforms that resulted in this pipeline of product candidates were initially identified or discovered and then advanced by the PureTech team through key validation points based on the Company's unique insights into the biology of the brain, immune and gut, or BIG, systems and the interface between those systems, referred to as the BIG Axis.
For more information, visit or connect with us on Twitter @puretechh.
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This press release contains statements that are or may be forward-looking statements, including statements that relate to the company's future prospects, developments, and strategies. The forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance and achievements to differ materially from current expectations, including, but not limited to, our expectations regarding the potential therapeutic benefits of our product candidates and those of our Founded Entities, our expectations regarding 2021 milestones and timing, including with respect to clinical trial initiations and expected data readouts, our ability to broaden access to an international investor base, our cash runway and financial position as well as those risks and uncertainties described in the risk factors included in the regulatory filings for PureTech Health plc (including the risk factors in our 2020 Annual Report and Accounts). These forward-looking statements are based on assumptions regarding the present and future business strategies of the company and the environment in which it will operate in the future. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as at the date of this press release. Except as required by law and regulatory requirements, neither the company nor any other party intends to update or revise these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Cash and cash equivalents held at PureTech Health plc and only wholly-owned subsidiaries (please refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for further information with respect to our wholly-owned subsidiaries) as of March 31, 2021. The measure includes cash outflows and inflows for the first quarter of 2021, particularly the sale of 1,000,000 common shares of Karuna for aggregate proceeds of $118.0 million on February 9, 2021. This represents a non-IFRS number. For a reconciliation of this number to IFRS, please see below under the heading "Financial Review.” Cash and cash equivalents held at PureTech Health plc and only wholly-owned subsidiaries (Please refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for further information with respect to our wholly-owned subsidiaries) as of December 31, 2020. This represents a non-IFRS number. For a reconciliation of this number to IFRS, please see below under the heading "Financial Review.” Cash and cash equivalents held at PureTech Health plc and consolidated subsidiaries (please refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for further information with respect to our consolidated subsidiaries) as of March 31, 2021. The measure includes cash outflows and inflows for the first quarter of 2021, particularly the sale of 1,000,000 common shares of Karuna for aggregate proceeds of $118.0 million on February 9, 2021. Cash and cash equivalents held at PureTech Health plc and consolidated subsidiaries (please refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for further information with respect to our consolidated subsidiaries) as of December 31, 2020. Funding figure includes private equity financings, loans and promissory notes, public offerings or grant awards. Funding figure excludes future milestone considerations received in conjunction with partnerships and collaborations such as those with Boehringer Ingelheim, Imbrium Therapeutics L.P., Shionogi & Co., Ltd. or Eli Lilly. Funding figure does not include Vor’s gross proceeds of $203.4 million from its February 2021 post-period IPO or Karuna’s gross proceeds of $269.8 million from its February 2021 post-period follow-on offering. Funding figure includes Vor’s gross proceeds of $203.4 million from its February 2021 post-period IPO and Karuna’s gross proceeds of $269.8 million from its February 2021 post-period follow-on offering. References in this report to “Wholly Owned Programs” refer to the Company’s four therapeutic candidates (LYT-100, LYT-200, LYT-210 and LYT-300), three discovery platforms and potential future therapeutic candidates and discovery platforms that the Company may develop or obtain. References to “Wholly Owned Pipeline” refer to LYT-100, LYT-200, LYT-210 and LYT-300. Relevant ownership interests for Founded Entities were calculated on a diluted basis (as opposed to a voting basis) as of December 31, 2020, including outstanding shares, options and warrants, but excluding unallocated shares authorized to be issued pursuant to equity incentive plans. Karuna ownership is calculated on an outstanding voting share basis as of March 4, 2021. Vor ownership is calculated on an outstanding voting share basis as of February 9, 2021. Important Safety Information: Patients who are pregnant or are allergic to cellulose, citric acid, sodium stearyl fumarate, gelatin, or titanium dioxide should not take Plenity. To avoid impact on the absorption of medications: For all medications that should be taken with food, take them after starting a meal. For all medications that should be taken without food (on an empty stomach), continue taking on an empty stomach or as recommended by your physician. The overall incidence of side effects with Plenity was no different than placebo. The most common side effects were diarrhea, distended abdomen, infrequent bowel movements, and flatulence. Contact a doctor right away if problems occur. If you have a severe allergic reaction, severe stomach pain, or severe diarrhea, stop using Plenity until you can speak to your doctor. Rx Only. For the safe and proper use of Plenity or more information, talk to a healthcare professional, read the Patient Instructions for Use, or call 1-844-PLENITY. EndeavorRx is indicated to improve attention function as measured by computer-based testing in children ages 8-12 years old with primarily inattentive or combined-type ADHD, who have a demonstrated attention issue. Patients who engage with EndeavorRx demonstrate improvements in a digitally assessed measure Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) of sustained and selective attention and may not display benefits in typical behavioral symptoms, such as hyperactivity. EndeavorRx should be considered for use as part of a therapeutic program that may include clinician-directed therapy, medication, and/or educational programs, which further address symptoms of the disorder. EndeavorRx is available by prescription only. It is not intended to be used as a stand-alone therapeutic and is not a substitution for a child’s medication.
You should read the following discussion and analysis together with our consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, set forth elsewhere in this report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and financing our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, including the risks set forth on pages 69 to 71 and in the Additional Information section from pages 191 to 227, our actual results could differ materially from the results described in or implied by these forward-looking statements.
Our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 have been prepared in accordance with international accounting standards in conformity with the requirements of the Companies Act 2006 and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) adopted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 as it applies in the EU. The Consolidated Financial Statements also comply fully with IFRSs as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
The following discussion contains references to the consolidated financial statements of PureTech Health plc, or the Company, and its consolidated subsidiaries, together the Group. These financial statements consolidate the Company’s subsidiaries and include the Company’s interest in associates and investments held at fair value. Subsidiaries are those entities over which the Company maintains control. Associates are those entities in which the Company does not have control for financial accounting purposes but maintains significant influence over financial and operating policies. Where we have neither control nor significant influence for financial accounting purposes, we recognize our holding in such entity as an investment at fair value. For purposes of our consolidated financial statements, each of our Founded Entities are considered to be either a “subsidiary", an “associate” or an "investment held at fair value" depending on whether PureTech Health plc controls or maintains significant influence over the financial and operating policies of the respective entity at the respective period end date. For additional information regarding the accounting treatment of these entities, see Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report. For additional information regarding our operating structure, see “—Basis of Presentation and Consolidation” below. Fair value of investments accounted for at fair value, does not take into consideration contribution from milestones that occurred after December 31, 2020, the value of our consolidated Founded Entities (Vedanta, Follica, Sonde, Akili, Alivio, and Entrega), our Wholly Owned Programs, or our cash.
Business Background and Results Overview
The business background is discussed from pages 1 to 59, which describe in detail the business development of our Wholly Owned Programs and Founded Entities.
Our ability to generate product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our wholly-owned or Founded Entities’ therapeutics candidates, which may never occur. Our Founded Entities, Gelesis, Inc., or Gelesis, and Akili Interactive Labs, Inc., or Akili in which we lost control in 2019 and 2018, respectively, have products cleared for sale, but we and our Controlled Founded Entities have not generated any revenue from product sales.
We have deconsolidated a number of our Founded Entities during the past three fiscal years including Akili, in 2018 and, Vor Biopharma Inc., or Vor, Karuna Therapeutics, Inc., or Karuna and Gelesis Inc., or Gelesis, during 2019. We expect this trend to continue into the foreseeable future as our Controlled Founded Entities raise additional funding. Any deconsolidation affects our financials in the following manner:
our ownership interest does not provide us with a controlling financial interest;
we no longer control the Founded Entity's assets and liabilities and as a result we derecognize the assets, liabilities and non-controlling interests related to the Founded Entity from our Consolidated Statements of Financial Position;
we record our non-controlling financial interest in the Founded Entity at fair value; and
the resulting amount of any gain or loss is recognized in our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income/(Loss).
We anticipate our expenses to continue to increase proportionally in connection with our ongoing development activities related to our preclinical and clinical programs within our Wholly Owned Programs and Controlled Founded Entities. In addition, having completed our U.S. listing in November 2020, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company in the U.S. We also expect that our expenses and capital requirements will increase substantially in the near to mid-term as we:
continue our research and development efforts;
seek regulatory approvals for any therapeutic candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
add clinical, scientific, operational financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our therapeutic development and potential future commercialization claims; and
operate as a U.S. public company.
In addition, our internal research and development spend will increase in the foreseeable future as we may initiate clinical studies for LYT-100, LYT-200, LYT-210 and LYT-300, and as we continue to progress our GlyphTM and OrasomeTM technology platforms as well as our meningeal lymphatics discovery research program.
In addition, with respect to our Founded Entities’ programs, we anticipate that we will continue to fund a small portion of development costs by strategically participating in such companies’ financings when it is in the best interests of our shareholders. The form of any such participation may include investment in public or private financings, collaboration and partnership arrangements and licensing arrangements, among others. Our management and strategic decision makers consider the future funding needs of our Founded Entities and evaluate the needs and opportunities with respect to each of these Founded Entities routinely and on a case-by-case basis.
As a result, we may need substantial additional funding to support our continuing operations and pursue our growth strategy. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, which may include monetization of certain of our interests in our Founded Entities and collaborations with third parties. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements or arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all. If we fail to raise capital or enter into such agreements as, and when needed, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development and commercialization of one or more of our wholly-owned therapeutic candidates.
The Financial Review discusses our operating and financial performance, our cash flows and liquidity as well as our financial position and our resources. The results for each year are compared primarily with the results of the preceding year.
Reported performance considers all factors that have affected the results of our business, as reflected in our consolidated financial statements.
Core performance measures are alternative performance measures (APM) which are adjusted and non-IFRS measures. These measures cannot be derived directly from our consolidated financial statements. We believe that these non-IFRS performance measures, when provided in combination with reported performance, will provide investors, analysts and other stakeholders with helpful complementary information to better understand our financial performance and our financial position from period to period. The measures are also used by management for planning and reporting purposes. The measures are not substitutable for IFRS results and should not be considered superior to results presented in accordance with IFRS.
In December 2019, illnesses associated with COVID-19 were reported and the virus has since caused widespread and significant disruption to daily life and economies across geographies. The World Health Organization has classified the outbreak as a pandemic. Our business, operations and financial condition and results have not been significantly impacted during the year ended December 31, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken swift action to ensure the safety of our employees and other stakeholders. We continue to monitor the latest developments regarding the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, and financial condition and results, and have made certain assumptions regarding the pandemic for purposes of our operational planning and financial projections, including assumptions regarding the duration and severity of the pandemic and the global macroeconomic impact of the pandemic. Despite careful tracking and planning, however, we are unable to accurately predict the extent of the impact of the pandemic on our business, operations, and financial condition and results in future periods due to the uncertainty of future developments. We are focused on all aspects of our business and are implementing measures aimed at mitigating issues where possible including by using digital technology to assist operations for our R&D and enabling functions.
Recent Developments (subsequent to December 31, 2020)
On January 8, 2021, PureTech participated in the second closing of Vor’s Series B Preferred Share financing. For consideration of $0.5 million, PureTech received 961,538 shares.
On February 9, 2021, Vor closed its initial public offering of 9,828,017 shares at a price to the public of $18.00 per share. Subsequent to the closing, PureTech held 3,207,200.00 shares of Vor common stock, representing 8.6% of Vor common stock.
On February 9, 2021, PureTech Health sold 1,000,000 common shares of Karuna for aggregate proceeds of $118.0 million. Following the sale PureTech holds 2,406,564 shares of Karuna common stock, representing 8.2% of Karuna common stock.
As of March 31, 2021, we had consolidated cash and cash equivalents of $486.5 million and PureTech Level cash and cash equivalents of $443.4 million.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
Our consolidated financial information consolidates the financial information of PureTech Health plc, as well as its subsidiaries, and includes our interest in associates and investments held at fair value, and is reported in four operating segments as described below.
Basis for Segmentation
Our directors are our strategic decision-makers. Our operating segments are based on the financial information provided to our directors quarterly for the purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. We have determined that each Founded Entity is representative of a single operating segment as our directors monitor the financial results at this level. When identifying the reportable segments we have determined that it is appropriate to aggregate multiple operating segments into a single reportable segment given the high level of operational and financial similarities across the entities. We have identified four reportable segments which are outlined below. Substantially all of our revenue and profit generating activities are generated within the United States and, accordingly, no geographical disclosures are provided.
The Internal segment is advancing Wholly Owned Programs designed to harness key immunological, fibrotic and lymphatic system mechanisms. These novel classes of immunomodulatory drugs are designed to treat serious diseases, including lung dysfunction, immuno-oncology, lymphatic, neurological and neuropsychological disorders. The Internal segment is comprised of the technologies that are wholly owned and will be advanced through either PureTech Health funding or non-dilutive sources of financing in the near-term. The operational management of the Internal segment is conducted by the PureTech Health team, which is responsible for the strategy, business development, and research and development. As of December 31, 2020, this segment included PureTech LYT, Inc. (formerly Ariya Therapeutics Inc.) and PureTech LYT 100, Inc.
Controlled Founded Entities
The Controlled Founded Entities segment is comprised of our subsidiaries that are currently consolidated operational subsidiaries that either have, or have plans to hire, independent management teams and have previously raised, or are currently in the process of raising, third-party dilutive capital. These subsidiaries have active research and development programs and either have entered into or plan to seek a strategic partnership with an equity or debt investment partner, who will provide additional industry knowledge and access to networks, as well as additional funding to continue the pursued growth of the company. As of December 31, 2020, this segment included Alivio Therapeutics, Inc., Entrega, Inc., Follica, Incorporated, Sonde Health, Inc. and Vedanta Biosciences, Inc.
Non-Controlled Founded Entities
The Non-Controlled Founded Entities segment is comprised of the entities in respect of which PureTech Health (i) no longer holds majority voting control as a shareholder and (ii) no longer has the right to elect a majority of the members of the entity's Board of Directors. Upon deconsolidation of an entity the segment disclosure is restated to reflect the change on a retrospective basis, as this constitutes a change in the composition of its reportable segments. The Non-Controlled Founded Entities segment included Akili Interactive Labs, Inc. (“Akili”), Vor Biopharma, Inc. (“Vor”), Karuna Therapeutics, Inc. (“Karuna”), and Gelesis, Inc. (“Gelesis”).
The Non-Controlled Founded Entities segment incorporates the operational results of the aforementioned entities to the date of deconsolidation. Following the date of deconsolidation, we account for our investment in each entity at the parent level, and therefore the results associated with investment activity following the date of deconsolidation is included in the Parent Company and Other segment (the “Parent Company and Other segment”).
Parent Company and Other segment
The Parent Company and Other segment includes activities that are not directly attributable to the operating segments, such as the activities of the Parent, corporate support functions and certain research and development support functions that are not directly attributable to a strategic business segment as well as the elimination of intercompany transactions. This segment also captures the accounting for our holdings in entities for which control has been lost, which is inclusive of the following items: gain on deconsolidation, gain or loss on investments held at fair value, gain on loss of significant influence, and the share of net loss of associates accounted for using the equity method. As of December 31, 2020, this segment included PureTech Health plc, PureTech Health LLC, PureTech Management, Inc., PureTech Securities Corp., and PureTech Securities II Corp. as well as certain other dormant, inactive and shell entities.
The table below summarizes the entities that comprised each of our segments as of December 31, 2020:
Components of Our Results of Operations
To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and we do not expect to generate any revenue from product sales for the near term future. We derive our revenue from the following:
We generate revenue primarily from licenses, services and collaboration agreements, including amounts that are recognized related to upfront payments, milestone payments and amounts due to us for research and development services. In the future, revenue may include additional milestone payments and royalties on any net product sales under our collaborations. We expect that any revenue we generate will fluctuate from period to period as a result of the timing and amount of license, research and development services and milestone and other payments.
Grant revenue is derived from grant awards we receive from governmental agencies and non-profit organizations for certain qualified research and development expenses. We recognize grants from governmental agencies as grant income in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income/(Loss), gross of the expenditures that were related to obtaining the grant, when there is reasonable assurance that we will comply with the conditions within the grant agreement and there is reasonable assurance that payments under the grants will be received. We evaluate the conditions of each grant as of each reporting date to ensure that we have reasonable assurance of meeting the conditions of each grant arrangement and it is expected that the grant payment will be received as a result of meeting the necessary conditions.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our discovery efforts, and the development of our wholly-owned and our Controlled Founded Entities’ therapeutic candidates, which include:
employee-related expenses, including salaries, related benefits and equity-based compensation;
expenses incurred in connection with the preclinical and clinical development of our wholly-owned and our Founded Entities’ therapeutic candidates, including our agreements with contract research organizations, or CROs;
expenses incurred under agreements with consultants who supplement our internal capabilities;
the cost of lab supplies and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical study materials and clinical trial materials;
costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements; and
facilities, depreciation and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and other operating costs.
We expense all research costs in the periods in which they are incurred and development costs are capitalized only if certain criteria are met. For the periods presented, we have not capitalized any development costs since we have not met the necessary criteria required for capitalization. Costs for certain development activities are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using information and data provided to us by our vendors and third-party service providers.
Research and development activities are central to our business model. Therapeutic candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase for the foreseeable future in connection with our planned preclinical and clinical development activities in the near term and in the future. The successful development of our wholly-owned and our Founded Entities’ therapeutic candidates is highly uncertain. As such, at this time, we cannot reasonably estimate or know the nature, timing and estimated costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the remainder of the development of these therapeutic candidates. We are also unable to predict when, if ever, material net cash inflows will commence from our wholly-owned or our Founded Entities’ therapeutic candidates. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing therapeutics, including the uncertainty of:
progressing research and development of our Wholly Owned Pipeline, including LYT-100, LYT-200, LYT-210, LYT-300 and continue to progress our Glyph TM and Orasome TM technology platforms as well as our meningeal lymphatics discovery research program and other potential therapeutic candidates within our Wholly Owned Programs;
and Orasome technology platforms as well as our meningeal lymphatics discovery research program and other potential therapeutic candidates within our Wholly Owned Programs; establishing an appropriate safety profile with investigational new drug application enabling studies to advance our preclinical programs into clinical development;
the success of our Founded Entities and their need for additional capital;
identifying new therapeutic candidates to add to our Wholly Owned Pipeline;
successful enrollment in, and the initiation and completion of, clinical trials;
the timing, receipt and terms of any marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
commercializing our wholly-owned and our Founded Entities’ therapeutic candidates, if approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
establishing commercial manufacturing capabilities or making arrangements with third-party manufacturers;
addressing any competing technological and market developments, as well as any changes in governmental regulations;
negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter and performing our obligations under such arrangements;
maintaining, protecting and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how, as well as obtaining and maintaining regulatory exclusivity for our wholly-owned and our Founded Entities’ therapeutic candidates;
continued acceptable safety profile of our therapeutics, if any, following approval; and
attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.
A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a therapeutic candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that therapeutic candidate. For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, or another comparable foreign regulatory authority may require us to conduct clinical trials beyond those that we anticipate will be required for the completion of clinical development of a therapeutic candidate, or we may experience significant trial delays due to patient enrollment or other reasons, in which case we would be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development. In addition, we may obtain unexpected results from our clinical trials and we may elect to discontinue, delay or modify clinical trials of some therapeutic candidates or focus on others. Identifying potential therapeutic candidates and conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials is a time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our wholly-owned and our Founded Entities’ therapeutic candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in our executive, finance, corporate and business development and administrative functions. General and administrative expenses also include professional fees for legal, patent, accounting, auditing, tax and consulting services, travel expenses and facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs.
We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we increase our general and administrative headcount to support our continued research and development and potential commercialization of our portfolio of therapeutic candidates. We also expect to incur increased expenses associated with being a public company in the United States, including costs of accounting, audit, information systems, legal, regulatory and tax compliance services, director and officer insurance costs and investor and public relations costs.
Total Other Income/(Loss)
Gain on Deconsolidation
Upon losing control of a subsidiary, the assets and liabilities are derecognized along with any related non-controlling interest (“NCI”). Any interest retained in the former subsidiary is measured at fair value when control is lost. Any resulting gain or loss is recognized as profit or loss in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income/(Loss).
Gain/(Loss) on Investments Held at Fair Value
Investments held at fair value include both unlisted and listed securities held by us, which include investments in Akili, Gelesis, Karuna, Vor, ResTORbio (until its sale in 2020) and certain insignificant investments. Our ownership in Akili and Vor is in preferred shares. Preferred shares form part of our ownership in Gelesis and such preferred shares investment is accounted for as Investments Held at Fair value while the investment in common stock is accounted for under the equity method. Our ownership in Karuna was in preferred shares until its IPO in June 2019 when such shares were converted into common shares. When Karuna's preferred shares converted into common shares, our equity interest in Karuna investment was removed from Investments Held at Fair Value and accounted for under the equity method as we still retained significant influence in Karuna at such time. On December 2, 2019 we lost significant influence in Karuna and, beginning on that date, we accounted for our investment in Karuna in accordance with IFRS 9 as an Investment Held at Fair Value. We account for investments in preferred shares of our associates in accordance with IFRS 9 as Investments Held at Fair Value when the preferred shares do not provide access to returns underlying ownership interests.
Loss Realized on Investments Held at Fair Value
Loss realized on investments held at fair value relates to realized differences in the per share disposal price of a listed security as compared to the per share exchange quoted price at the time of disposal. The difference is attributable to a blockage discount, attributable to a variety of market factors, primarily the number of shares being transacted was significantly larger than the daily trading volume of a given security.
Gain on Loss of Significant Influence
Gain on loss of significant influence relates to the assessment in connection with our ability to exert significant influence over an investment in a Non-Controlled Founded Entity. As of December 31, 2020, only our investment in Gelesis meets the scope of equity method accounting. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, we recognized gains on loss of significant influence in Karuna and resTORbio, respectively.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists primarily of gains and losses related to the sale of an asset and certain investments as well as sub-lease income.
Finance costs consist of loan interest expense and the changes in the fair value of certain liabilities associated with financing transactions, mainly preferred share liabilities in respect of preferred shares issued by our non wholly owned subsidiaries to third parties. Finance income consists of interest income on funds invested in money market funds and U.S. treasuries.
Share of Net Gain (Loss) of Associates Accounted for Using the Equity Method, and Impairment of Investment in Associate
Associates are accounted for using the equity method (equity accounted investees) and are initially recognized at cost, or if recognized upon deconsolidation they are initially recorded at fair value at the date of deconsolidation. The consolidated financial statements include our share of the total comprehensive income and equity movements of equity accounted investees, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases. When the share of losses exceeds the net investment in the investee, including the investment in preferred shares that are considered Long-term Interests, the carrying amount is reduced to nil and recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that we have incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of an investee.
We compare the recoverable amount of the investment to its carrying amount on a go-forward basis and determine the need for impairment.
We must make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. The amount of taxes currently payable or refundable is accrued, and deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amount of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for realizable loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using substantively enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Net deferred tax assets are not recorded if we do not assess their realization as probable. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in income tax rates is recognized in our financial statements in the period that includes the substantive enactment date.
Results of Operations
The following table, which has been derived from our audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 included herein, summarizes our results of operations for the periods indicated, together with the changes in those items in dollars:
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
Our total revenue was $11.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $2.0 million, or 20.0 percent compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase of $2.3 million in grant revenue in the Controlled Founded Entities segment for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was driven primarily by Vedanta's grant revenue earned pursuant to its CARB-X and BARDA agreements. The increase was further attributable to an increase of $1.9 million in contract revenue in the Parent segment for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was primarily driven by a $2.0 million milestone payment received from Karuna for initiation of its KarXT Phase 3 clinical study pursuant to the Exclusive Patent License Agreement between PureTech and Karuna. The increases were partially offset by a decline of $2.5 million in contract revenue in the Internal segment, which was primarily drive by the Orasome collaboration and license agreement with Roche, which concluded during the year ended December 31, 2020.
Research and Development Expenses
Our research and development expenses were $81.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decline of $4.0 million, or 4.6 percent compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The change was attributable to a decline of $15.6 million in the Non-Controlled Founded Entities segment owing to the deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during year ended December 31, 2019. The decline was further attributable to declines of $2.7 million in the Controlled Founded Entities segment and $1.3 million in the Parent segment for the year ended December 31, 2020. The declines were partially offset by an increase of $15.6 million in research and development expenses incurred by the Internal segment for the year ended December 31, 2020. In 2020 we progressed our wholly-owned therapeutic candidates to key milestones. We completed a Phase 1 multiple ascending dose and food effect study for LYT-100. We also initiated a Phase 2a proof-of-concept study of LYT-100 in patients with breast cancer-related, upper limb secondary lymphedema as well as initiated a Phase 2 trial of LYT-100 in Long COVID respiratory complications and related sequelae, which is also known as post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). Finally, we initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of LYT-200 for the potential treatment of metastatic solid tumors that are difficult to treat and have poor survival rates.
General and Administrative Expenses
Our general and administrative expenses were $49.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of $9.9 million, or 16.7 percent compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily attributable to a decline of $10.4 million in the Non-Controlled Founded Entities segment, owing to the deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during the year ended December 31, 2019.
Total Other Income/(Loss)
Total other income was $178.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of $493.4 million, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. We recognized a gain on loss of significant influence of $445.6 million with respect to Karuna for the year ended December 31, 2019. No loss of significant influence of associates occurred during the year ended December 31, 2020. The decline was further attributable to a decline of $264.4 million in gain on deconsolidation as no deconsolidation of subsidiaries occurred during the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to a gain of $264.4 million recognized for the deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during the year ended December 31, 2019. The decline was further attributable to a loss of $55.0 million realized on the sale of certain investments held at fair value during year ended December 31, 2020. The declines were partially offset by an increase of $270.5 million on gain on investments held at fair value for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was primarily driven by Karuna.
Net Finance Income (Costs)
Net finance costs were $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decline of $40.0 million, or 86.7 percent compared to net finance costs of $46.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The change was primarily attributable to a $42.1 million decline in the change in the fair value of our preferred shares, warrant and convertible note liabilities held by third parties for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Share of Net Gain (Loss) in Associates Accounted for Using the Equity Method, and Impairment of Investment in Associate
The share of net loss in associates was $34.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of $64.9 million, or 210.8 percent as compared to net gain of $30.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The change in share of net gain/(loss) in associates was primarily attributable to the financial results of Gelesis for the year ended December 31, 2020. Additionally, we allocated a share of our net loss in Gelesis for the year ended December 31, 2020, totaling $23.0 million, to our long-term interest in Gelesis as of December 31, 2020. We recorded equity method income of $37.1 million with respect to Gelesis, which was partially offset by our share of net loss in Karuna of $6.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Additionally, we recorded an impairment charge of $42.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, related to our investment in common shares held in Gelesis. See Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
Income tax expense was $14.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decline of $98.0 million, or 87.2 percent as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The decline in income tax expense was primarily attributable to the gains realized on the loss of significant influence on Karuna for the year ended December 31, 2019 and the gains recognized on deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during the year ended December 31, 2019.
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
Our total revenue was $9.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $10.9 million, or 52.7 percent compared to the year ended December 31, 2018. The decline was attributable to decreases of $11.7 million in contract revenue and $3.2 million in grant revenue in the Controlled Founded Entities segment for the year ended December 31, 2019, which was driven primarily by Vedanta's contract revenue earned under its milestone-based JBI collaboration agreement and grant revenue earned pursuant to its CARB-X agreement during 2018. The decline in Controlled Founded Entities segment's contract and grant revenues, was partially offset by a $4.0 million increase in contract revenue in the Internal segment, which was driven by increases in contract revenue earned under the Orasome collaboration and license agreement with Roche and the Lymphatic Targeting platform collaboration and license agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim entered into in July 2019 for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Research and Development Expenses
Our research and development expenses were $85.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $8.4 million, or 10.9 percent compared to the year ended December 31, 2018. The change was attributable to increases of $17.0 million in the Internal segment for the year ended December 31, 2019. In 2019, we continued to shift our focus towards the Internal segment, investing in research and development activities to advance a Wholly Owned Pipeline of therapeutic candidates designed to harness key immunological, fibrotic and lymphatic system mechanisms. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we progressed LYT-100 towards first patient dosing in its Phase 1 multiple ascending dose and food effect study, which began in 2020, and prepared for the initiation of a Phase 1 clinical study of LYT-200 in solid tumors, which also began in 2020. Research and development expenses in the Controlled Founded Entities segment also increased $5.9 million as Vedanta progressed its candidates VE202, VE303, VE416 and VE800 to meaningful milestones. The increases were partially offset by a decline of $14.3 million in the Non-Controlled Founded Entities segment owing to the deconsolidation of Akili during the year ended December 31, 2018 and the deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during the year ended December 31, 2019.
General and Administrative Expenses
Our general and administrative expenses were $59.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $12.0 million, or 25.3 percent compared to the year ended December 31, 2018. The change was attributable to increases of $12.8 million in the Parent segment for year ended December 31, 2019, which was primarily driven by increased professional fees incurred in the exploration of an ADR listing and increased non-cash depreciation and amortization expenses incurred in the implementation of IFRS 16 Leases and the lease we entered into during the year ended December 31, 2019 for our new headquarters. Controlled Founded Entities segment's general and administrative expenses also increased by $4.2 million. The increases in the Internal and Controlled Founded Entities segments' general and administrative were offset by the deconsolidation of Akili during the year ended December 31, 2018 and the deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during the year ended December 31, 2019
Total Other Income/(Loss)
Total other income was $672.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $651.0 million, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2018. The growth was attributable to an increase of $435.3 million in gain on loss of significant influence for the year ended December 31, 2019. For the year ended December 31, 2019 we recognized a gain on loss of significant influence of $445.6 million with respect to Karuna, while for the year ended December 31, 2018 we recognized a gain on loss of significant influence of $10.3 million with respect to resTORbio. The growth was further attributable to an increase of $222.7 million in gain on deconsolidation as we recognized a gain of $264.4 million for the deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to a gain of $41.7 million for the deconsolidation of Akili during the year ended December 31, 2018. The gains were partially offset by a decline of $4.1 million in income related to asset disposals and an increase in fair value accounting losses of $3.2 million on certain investments held at fair value for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Net Finance Income (Costs)
Net finance costs were $46.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $72.1 million in costs, or 278.1 percent as compared to the year ended December 31, 2018. The change was primarily attributable to a $70.5 million decline in the change in the fair value of our preferred shares, warrant and convertible note liabilities held by third parties for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Share of Net Gain/(Loss) in Associates Accounted for Using the Equity Method, and Impairment of Investment in Associate
The share of net income in associates was $30.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $42.3 million, or 368.0 percent as compared to a net loss for the year ended December 31, 2018. The change in associate income was attributable to the deconsolidation of Karuna and Gelesis and subsequent equity method accounting from the date of deconsolidation to December 31, 2019. We recorded equity method income of $37.1 million with respect to Gelesis, which was partially offset by our share of net loss in Karuna of $6.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Additionally, we recorded an impairment charge of $42.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, related to our investment in common shares held in Gelesis. See Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
Income tax expense was $112.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $110.2 million, or 4961.2 percent as compared to the year ended December 31, 2018. The growth in income tax expense was primarily attributable to the gains realized on the loss of significant influence on Karuna for the year ended December 31, 2019 and the gains recognized on deconsolidation of Vor, Karuna and Gelesis during the year ended December 31, 2019.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates
Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which we have prepared in accordance with international accounting standards in conformity with the requirements of the Companies Act 2006 and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) adopted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 as it applies in the EU. The Consolidated Financial Statements also comply fully with IFRSs as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). In the preparation of these financial statements, we are required to make judgments, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Our estimates and assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period or in the period of the revisions and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.
While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our consolidated financial statements appearing at the end of this report, we believe the following accounting policies to be most critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our financial statements. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for a further detailed description of our significant accounting policies.
We account for our financial instruments according to IFRS 9. As such, when issuing preferred shares in our subsidiaries we determine the classification of financial instruments in terms of liability or equity. Such determination involves significant judgement. These judgements include an assessment of whether the financial instruments include any embedded derivative features, whether they include contractual obligations upon us to deliver cash or other financial assets or to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another party at any point in the future prior to liquidation, and whether that obligation will be settled by exchanging a fixed amount of cash or other financial assets for a fixed number of the Group's equity instruments.
In accordance with IFRS 9 we carry certain investments in equity securities at fair value as well as our subsidiary preferred share, convertible notes and warrant liabilities, all through profit and loss (FVTPL). Valuation of the aforementioned financial instruments (assets and liabilities) includes making significant estimates, specifically determining the appropriate valuation methodology and making certain estimates of the future earnings potential of the subsidiary businesses, appropriate discount rate and earnings multiple to be applied, marketability and other industry and company specific risk factors.
The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and the entities it controls. Based on the applicable accounting rules, the Company controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. Therefore an assessment is required to determine whether the Company has i) power over the investee; (ii) exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee; and (iii) the ability to use its power over the investee to affect the amount of the investor’s returns. Judgement is required to perform such assessment and it requires that the Company considers, among others, activities that most significantly affect the returns of the investee, its voting shares, representation on the board, rights to appoint management, investee dependence on the Company and other contributing factors.
Investment in Associates
When we do not control an investee but maintain significant influence over the financial and operating policies of the investee the investee is an associate. Significant influence is presumed to exist when we hold 20 percent or more of the voting power of an entity, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. We evaluate if we maintain significant influence over associates by assessing if we have the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the associate.
Associates are accounted for using the equity method (equity accounted investees) and are initially recognized at cost, or if recognized upon deconsolidation they are initially recorded at fair value at the date of deconsolidation. The consolidated financial statements include our share of the total comprehensive income and equity movements of equity accounted investees, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases. When our share of losses exceeds the net investment in an equity accounted investee, including preferred share investments that are considered to be Long-Term Interests, the carrying amount is reduced to zero and recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that we have incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of an investee. To the extent we hold interests in associates that are not providing access to returns underlying ownership interests, the instrument held by PureTech is accounted for in accordance with IFRS 9.
Judgement is required in order to determine whether we have significant influence over financial and operating policies of investees. This judgement includes, among others, an assessment whether we have representation on the board of directors of the investee, whether we participate in the policy making processes of the investee, whether there is any interchange of managerial personnel, whether there is any essential technical information provided to the investee and if there are any transactions between us and the investee.
Judgement is also required to determine which instruments we hold in the investee form part of the investment in the associate, which is accounted for under IAS 28 and scoped out of IFRS 9, and which instruments are separate financial instruments that fall under the scope of IFRS 9. This judgement includes an assessment of the characteristics of the financial instrument of the investee held by us and whether such financial instrument provides access to returns underlying an ownership interest.
Where the company has other investments in an equity accounted investee that are not accounted for under IAS 28, judgement is required in determining if such investments constitute Long-Term Interests for the purposes of IAS 28 (please refer to Notes 5 and 6). This determination is based on the individual facts and circumstances and characteristics of each investment, but is driven, among other factors, by the intention and likelihood to settle the instrument through redemption or repayment in the foreseeable future, and whether or not the investment is likely to be converted to common stock or other equity instruments
We must make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. The amount of taxes currently payable or refundable is accrued, and deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for realizable loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities for a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Net deferred tax assets are not recorded if we do not assess their realization as probable. Judgement is required to determine if realization of such deferred tax assets is probable.
Share-based payments includes stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) as well as service, market and performance-based RSU awards in which the expense is recognized based on the grant date fair value of these awards.
In accordance with IFRS 2, “Share-based Payments,” the fair value of the share option awards is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option-valuation model which requires the input of certain assumptions, including the expected life of the share-based award, share price volatility, dividend yield and interest rate. The volatility is based on our historical data for the purposes of the Black-Scholes option-valuation model. Expected life is based on the median expected term. Volatility is calculated by taking the weighted-average of the historical volatilities of our shares. We have not declared dividends and we do not plan to pay any dividends in the future. The risk-free interest rate for periods in the expected life of the option is based on the U.S. Treasury constant maturities in effect at the time of the grant.
The fair value of the market and performance-based awards is based on the Monte Carlo simulation analysis utilizing a Geometric Brownian Motion process with 100,000 simulations to value those shares. The model considers share price volatility, risk-free rate and other covariance of comparable public companies and other market data to predict distribution of relative share performance.
We recognize the estimated fair value of service, market and performance-based awards as share-based compensation expense over the vesting period based upon the determination of whether it is probable that the performance targets will be achieved. We assess the probability of achieving the performance targets at each reporting period. Cumulative adjustments, if any, are recorded to reflect subsequent changes in the estimated outcome of performance-related conditions. For share-based payment awards with market conditions, the grant date fair value is measured to reflect such conditions and there is no true-up for differences between expected and actual outcomes.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For information on recent accounting pronouncements, see our consolidated financial statements and the related notes found elsewhere in this report.
Cash Flow and Liquidity
Our cash flows may fluctuate and are difficult to forecast and will depend on many factors, including:
the expenses incurred in the development of wholly-owned and Controlled-Founded Entity therapeutic candidates;
the revenue generated by wholly-owned and Controlled-Founded Entity therapeutic candidates;
the revenue generated from licensing and royalty agreement with Founded Entities;
the financing requirements of the Internal segment, Controlled-Founded Entities segment and Parent segment; and
the investment activities in the Internal, Controlled-Founded Entities, and Non-Controlled Founded Entities and Parent segments.
As of December 31, 2020, we had consolidated cash and cash equivalents of $403.9 million. As of December 31, 2020, we had PureTech Level cash and cash equivalents of $349.4 million.
The following table summarizes our cash flows for each of the periods presented:
Net cash used in operating activities was $131.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to $98.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in outflows was primarily attributable to estimated income taxes of $20.7 million paid for our disposals of Karuna common shares during the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was further attributable to a decrease of $4.5 million in payments received with respect to contract revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020. We received a $2.0 million milestone payment from Karuna for initiation of its KarXT Phase 3 clinical study pursuant to the Exclusive Patent License Agreement between PureTech and Karuna during the year ended December 31, 2020. We received $3.5 million from Imbrium Therapeutics LP for the execution of a Research Collaboration Option and License Agreement and $3.0 million from Boehringer Ingelheim for the execution of a Collaboration and License Agreement during the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in outflows was further attributable to reduced interest income and the timing of payments in the normal course of business for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Net cash used in operating activities was $98.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to $72.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase in outflows was primarily due to our increased operating loss that resulted from increased research and development activities. In 2019, our income resulted from increased non-cash gains, that had no impact on the cash used in operating activities.
Net cash provided by investing activities was $364.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to inflows of $63.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The inflow was primarily attributable to the sale of Karuna and resTORbio common shares for aggregate proceeds of $350.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2020. The inflow was further attributable to cash provided by the maturity of short-term investments totaling $30.1 million. The inflows were offset by purchases of Gelesis and Vor preferred shares totaling $11.1 million and the purchase of fixed assets totaling $5.2 million.
Net cash provided by investing activities was $63.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to net cash used in investing activities of $39.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Cash provided by the maturity of short-term investments of $174.0 million was offset by the purchase of short-term investments of $69.5 million as well as the purchase of fixed assets totaling $12.1 million and the purchase of intangible assets totaling $0.4 million. The inflow was further offset by our investment in Gelesis convertible promissory notes totaling $6.5 million and Gelesis Series 3 Growth preferred shares and Karuna Series B preferred shares totaling $16.0 million. The inflow was further offset by the derecognition of cash totaling $16.0 million held by Vor, Karuna and Gelesis upon deconsolidation.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $38.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to $49.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The net inflow was primarily attributable to the issuances by Vedanta of a $25.0 million convertible promissory note and a long-term loan with net proceeds of $14.7 million. The inflow was further attributable to $13.8 million received from the Vedanta Series C-2 and Sonde Series A-2 preferred share financings. The inflows were partially offset by the $12.9 million settlement of 2017 RSU awards granted to certain executives.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $49.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to net inflows of $156.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The net inflow was primarily attributable to aggregate proceeds of the issuance of $51.0 million received from the Vedanta Series C and C-2, Gelesis Series 2 Growth and Sonde Series A-2 preferred share financings. Further inflows of $1.6 million were attributable to the proceeds from the issuance of convertible notes by Karuna. The inflows were partially offset by payment of our lease liability totaling $1.7 million and $1.3 million in withholding payroll tax payments related to the vesting of 2016 RSU awards granted to certain executives.
We have incurred operating losses since inception. Based on our current plans, we believe our existing cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2020 will be sufficient to fund our operations and capital expenditure requirements into the first quarter of 2024 and following the sale of 1,000,000 common shares of Karuna for aggregate proceeds of $118.0 million on February 9, 2021, we have sufficient funding to extend operations over a four year period into the first quarter of 2025. We expect to incur substantial additional expenditures in the near term to support our ongoing activities. Additionally, we expect to incur additional costs as a result of operating as a U.S. public company. We expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. Our ability to fund our therapeutic development and clinical operations as well as commercialization of our wholly-owned therapeutic candidates, will depend on the amount and timing of cash received from planned financings. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
the costs, timing and outcomes of clinical trials and regulatory reviews associated with our wholly-owned therapeutic candidates;