2023-03-29·Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)
The NK1 antagonist L-733,060 facilitates sequence learning.
作者: Natalia Favila ; Kevin Gurney ; Paul G Overton
Although several brain regions and electrophysiological patterns have been related to sequence learning, less attention has been paid to the role that different neuromodulators play.
Here we sought to investigate the role of substance P (SP) in sequence learning in an operant conditioning preparation, supported by a reinforcement learning model.
Two experiments were performed to test the effects of an NK1 receptor (at which SP primarily acts) antagonist on learning and performing action sequences. In experiment 1, rats were trained to perform an action sequence until stable performance was achieved, and then, in phase 2, they were switched to perform the reverse sequence. In experiment 2, rats were trained to perform an action sequence, and in phase 2, they continued to do the same sequence. In both experiments in the first 3 days of phase 2, rats were injected with an NK1 receptor antagonist (L-733,060, i.p.) or with vehicle. Additionally, we developed a reinforcement learning model which allowed the in silico replication of our experimental tasks.
We found that administering an NK1 receptor antagonist weakened the stable retention of a well-learned sequence, allowing the faster acquisition of a new sequence, without impairing the continued performance of a crystallized sequence. Using our reinforcement learning model, we suggest that SP could be acting through the state value learning rate, modulating the effects of the reward prediction error.
Our results suggest that SP could be involved in the consolidation of a sequence representation through a modulatory effect on the reward prediction error.
2023-03-01·Journal of veterinary science
Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme increases PKCβI isoform expression via activation of substance P and bradykinin receptors in cultured astrocytes of mice.
作者: Jae-Gyun Choi ; Sheu-Ran Choi ; Dong-Wook Kang ; Hyun Jin Shin ; Miae Lee ; Jungmo Hwang ; Hyun-Woo Kim
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) inhibits the catalysis of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the degradation of substance P (SP) and bradykinin (BK). While the possible relationship between ACEi and SP in nociceptive mice was recently suggested, the effect of ACEi on signal transduction in astrocytes remains unclear.
This study examined whether ACE inhibition with captopril or enalapril modulates the levels of SP and BK in primary cultured astrocytes and whether this change modulates PKC isoforms (PKCα, PKCβI, and PKCε) expression in cultured astrocytes.
Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed to examine the changes in the levels of SP and BK and the expression of the PKC isoforms in primary cultured astrocytes, respectively.
The treatment of captopril or enalapril increased the immunoreactivity of SP and BK significantly in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cultured astrocytes. These increases were suppressed by a pretreatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme. In addition, treatment with captopril increased the expression of the PKCβI isoform in cultured astrocytes, while there were no changes in the expression of the PKCα and PKCε isoforms after the captopril treatment. The captopril-induced increased expression of the PKCβI isoform was inhibited by a pretreatment with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, L-733,060, the BK B1 receptor antagonist, R 715, or the BK B2 receptor antagonist, HOE 140.
These results suggest that ACE inhibition with captopril or enalapril increases the levels of SP and BK in cultured astrocytes and that the activation of SP and BK receptors mediates the captopril-induced increase in the expression of the PKCβI isoform.
2021-12-21·Scientific reports3区 · 综合性期刊
Neurokinin receptor mechanisms in forebrain medial septum modulate nociception in the formalin model of inflammatory pain.
3区 · 综合性期刊
作者: Si Yun Ng ; Mohammed Zacky Ariffin ; Sanjay Khanna
The present study has explored the hypothesis that neurokinin1 receptors (NK1Rs) in medial septum (MS) modulate nociception evoked on hind paw injection of formalin. Indeed, the NK1Rs in MS are localized on cholinergic neurons which have been implicated in nociception. In anaesthetized rat, microinjection of L-733,060, an antagonist at NK1Rs, into MS antagonized the suppression of CA1 population spike (PS) evoked on peripheral injection of formalin or on intraseptal microinjection of substance P (SP), an agonist at NK1Rs. The CA1 PS reflects the synaptic excitability of pyramidal cells in the region. Furthermore, microinjection of L-733,060 into MS, but not LS, attenuated formalin-induced theta activation in both anaesthetized and awake rat, where theta reflects an oscillatory information processing by hippocampal neurons. The effects of L-733,060 on microinjection into MS were nociceptive selective as the antagonist did not block septo-hippocampal response to direct MS stimulation by the cholinergic receptor agonist, carbachol, in anaesthetized animal or on exploration in awake animal. Interestingly, microinjection of L-733,060 into both MS and LS attenuated formalin-induced nociceptive flinches. Collectively, the foregoing novel findings highlight that transmission at NK1R provide an affective valence to septo-hippocampal information processing and that peptidergic transmission in the septum modulates nociceptive behaviours.