Statistical optimization of culture conditions for expression of recombinant humanized anti-EpCAM single-chain antibody using response surface methodology.
作者: Aidin Behravan ; Atieh Hashemi
Background and purpose:
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), is one of the first cancer- associated markers discovered. Its overexpression in cancer stem cells, epithelial tumors, and circulating tumor cells makes this molecule interesting for targeted cancer therapy. So, in recent years scFv fragments have been developed for EpCAM targeting.
In this study, an scFv against EpCAM extracellular domain (EpEX) derived from 4D5MOC-B humanized mAb was expressed in Escherichia coli k12 strain, and in order to obtain the optimum culture conditions in chemically defined minimal medium, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed. According to the RSM-CCD method, a total of 30 experiments were designed to investigate the effects of various parameters including isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentration, cell density before induction, post-induction time, and post-induction temperature on anti EpEX-scFv expression level.
At the optimum conditions (induction at cell density 0.8 with 0.8 mM IPTG for 24 h at 37 °C), the recombinant anti EpEX-scFv was produced at a titer of 197.33 μg/mL that was significantly consistent with the prediction of the model.
Conclusion and implication:
The optimized-culture conditions obtained here for efficient production of anti EpEX-scFv in shake flask cultivation on a chemically defined minimal medium could be applied to large- scale fermentation for the anti EpEX-scFv production.
作者: Martin Sheppard ; Faidra Laskou ; Philip P Stapleton ; Shahryar Hadavi ; Bhaskar Dasgupta
Tocilizumab (TCZ), is a recombinant humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) monoclonal antibody which has a main use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA). This article provides an overview of TCZ including looking into the past at the discovery of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. It also looks at how tocilizumab was developed, manufactured and tested to ensure both safety and efficacy in a human population. The article then explores the advantages and disadvantages of using TCZ when compared to other biologics approved in RA, sJIA and pJIA and finally looks ahead to the future and the emerging role of IL-6 and its blockade by TCZ as a treatment for giant cell arteritis (GCA), polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and large vessel vasculitis (LVV).
Prospective study of TNFα blockade with adalimumab in ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis with renal involvement
2区 · 医学
作者: Laurino, Simona ; Chaudhry, Afzal ; Booth, Anthony ; Conte, Giuseppe ; Jayne, David
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is implicated in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV). There is a need for more effective and safer induction therapies for AASV. Uncontrolled studies have pointed to the efficacy of TNFα blockade with infliximab in the induction of remission in systemic vasculitides. We have hypothesized that adjunctive treatment with the humanized anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody, adalimumab, will permit more rapid remission and reduced prednisolone exposure in AASV.
This Phase II, open-label, prospective study enrolled 14 patients with acute flares of AASV either as first manifestation of disease or relapse. The Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) was used to assess the activity of the disease and the response to treatment. Adalimumab (40 mg s.c.) was given every 2 weeks for 3 months, in combination with intravenous cyclophosphamide and a reducing course of prednisolone. Primary endpoints were: (i) induction of remission within the first 14 weeks (BVAS = 0); (ii) time taken to achieve remission; (iii) safety and tolerability.
Mean age was 58 years and eight patients were male; all had kidney involvement. Eleven (78.5%) achieved remission within 14 weeks (mean, 12 weeks). BVAS decreased from 11.9 (mean; 95% CI, 9.3-14.4) at baseline to 2.0 (mean; 95% CI, 0-4.4) at Week 14 (P < 0.01). Prednisolone dose (in milligrammes per day) decreased from 37.1 (mean; 95% CI, 28.8-45.3) at entry to 8.1 (mean; 95% CI, 5.1-11.1) at Week 14 (P < 0.01). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (in millilitres per minute per 1.73 m(2)) increased from 17.1 (mean; 95% CI, 8.9-25.2) at entry to 30.1 (mean; 95% CI, 18-42.2) at 12 weeks (P < 0.01). One patient died and three infections occurred.
The addition of adalimumab to prednisolone and cyclophosphamide for the treatment of severe AASV was associated with response rates and adverse events similar to standard therapy alone but with a reduced prednisolone exposure. Further study is required to demonstrate whether the addition of adalimumab improves the speed of remission, the degree of renal recovery and safety.