2022-01-28·Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea)4区 · 生物学
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus vaccine development: updating clinical studies using platform technologies.
4区 · 生物学
作者: Jung-Ah Choi ; Jae-Ouk Kim
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a contagious zoonotic virus, causes severe respiratory infection with a case fatality rate of approximately 35% in humans. Intermittent sporadic cases in communities and healthcare facility outbreaks have continued to occur since its first identification in 2012. The World Health Organization has declared MERS-CoV a priority pathogen for worldwide research and vaccine development due to its epidemic potential and the insufficient countermeasures available. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations is supporting vaccine development against emerging diseases, including MERS-CoV, based on platform technologies using DNA, mRNA, viral vector, and protein subunit vaccines. In this paper, we review the usefulness and structure of a spike glycoprotein as a MERS-CoV vaccine candidate molecule, and provide an update on the status of MERS-CoV vaccine development. Vaccine candidates based on both DNA and viral vectors coding MERS-CoV spike gene have completed early phase clinical trials. A harmonized approach is required to assess the immunogenicity of various candidate vaccine platforms. Platform technologies accelerated COVID-19 vaccine development and can also be applied to developing vaccines against other emerging viral diseases.
2020-09-08·Expert Review of Vaccines2区 · 医学
An overview of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus vaccines in preclinical studies
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes high mortality in humans. No vaccines are approved for use in humans; therefore, a consistent effort to develop safe and effective MERS vaccines is needed.
This review describes the structure of MERS-CoV and the function of its proteins, summarizes MERS vaccine candidates under preclinical study (based on spike and non-spike structural proteins, inactivated virus, and live-attenuated virus), and highlights potential problems that could prevent these vaccines entering clinical trials. It provides guidance for the development of safe and effective MERS-CoV vaccines.
Although many MERS-CoV vaccines have been developed, most remain at the preclinical stage. Some vaccines demonstrate immunogenicity and efficacy in animal models, while others have potential adverse effects or low efficacy against high-dose or divergent virus strains. Novel strategies are needed to design safe and effective MERS vaccines to induce broad-spectrum immune responses and improve protective efficacy against multiple strains of MERS-CoV and MERS-like coronaviruses with pandemic potential. More funds should be invested to move vaccine candidates into human clinical trials.
2020-06-01·Indian journal of public health
COVID-19 vaccine development and the way forward.
作者: Narendra Kumar Arora ; Manoja Kumar Das
The whole globe is reeling under the COVID-19 pandemic now. With the scale and severity of infection, number of deaths and lack of any definite therapeutic armamentarium, the vaccine development has been accelerated at a never-before pace. A wide variety of vaccine technologies and platforms are being attempted. Out of the over 108 efforts, 100 are in preclinical and eight in Phase 1 or 2 trial stage. While the availability of newer technologies has facilitated development, there are several challenges on the way including limited understanding of the pathophysiology, targeting humoral or mucosal immunity, lack of suitable animal model, poor success of human severe acute respiratory syndrome/Middle East Respiratory Syndrome vaccines, limited efficacy of influenza vaccines, and immune exaggeration with animal coronavirus vaccines. With the current scenario with political, funding, research, and regulatory supports, if everything sails through smoothly, the successful vaccine is expected in 12-18 months. Modestly efficacious vaccine may be also a good achievement.