1998-02-27·Journal of Biological Chemistry2区 · 生物学
Characterization of the two-step pathway for inhibition of thrombin by α-ketoamide transition state analogs
2区 · 生物学
作者: Lewis, Sidney D. ; Lucas, Bobby J. ; Brady, Stephen F. ; Sisko, John T. ; Cutrona, Kellie J. ; Sanderson, Philip E. J. ; Freidinger, Roger M. ; Mao, Shi-Shan ; Gardell, Stephen J. ; Shafer, Jules A.
The interaction of thrombin with several potent and selective alpha-ketoamide transition state analogs was characterized. L-370, 518 (H-N-Me-D-Phe-Pro-t-4-aminocyclohexylglycyl N-methylcarboxamide) a potent (Ki = 90 pM) and selective (>10(4)-fold versus trypsin) ketoamide thrombin inhibitor was shown to bind thrombin via a two-step reaction wherein the initially formed thrombin-inhibitor complex (EI1) rearranges to a more stable, final complex (EI2). A novel sequential stopped-flow analysis showed that k-1, the rate constant for dissociation of EI1, was comparable to k2, the rate constant for conversion of EI1 to EI2 (0.049 and 0.035 s-1, respectively) indicating that formation of the initial complex EI1 is partially rate controlling. Replacement of the N-terminal methylamino group in L-370,518 with a hydrogen (L-372,051) resulted in a 44-fold loss in potency (Ki = 4 nM) largely due to an increase in k-1. Consequently in the reaction of L-372,051 with thrombin formation of EI1 was not rate controlling. Replacement of the P1' N-methylcarboxamide group of L-370,518 with an azetidylcarboxamido (L-372,228) produced a 58-fold increase in the value of the equilibrium constant (K-1) for dissociation of EI1. Nevertheless, L-372,228 was a 2-fold more potent thrombin inhibitor (Ki = 40 pM) than L-370,518 due to its 16-fold higher k2 and 10-fold lower k-2 values. The desketoamide analogs of L-370,518 and L-372,051, namely L-371,912 and L-372,011, inhibited thrombin via a one-step process. The Ki value for L-371,912 and the K-1 value for its alpha-ketoamide analog, L-370,518, were similar (5 and 14 nM, respectively). Likewise, the Ki value for L-372,011 and the K-1 value for its alpha-ketoamide analog, L-372,051, were similar (330 and 285 nM, respectively). These observations are consistent with the view that the alpha-ketoamides L-370,518 and L-372,051 form initial complexes with thrombin that are similar to the complexes formed by their desketoamide analogs, and in a second step the alpha-ketoamides react with the active site serine residue of thrombin to form a more stable hemiketal adduct.
1997-11-28·Journal of Biological Chemistry2区 · 生物学
Kinetic pathway for the slow to fast transition of thrombin. Evidence of linked ligand binding at structurally distinct domains
2区 · 生物学
作者: Lai, Ming-Tain ; Di Cera, Enrico ; Shafer, Jules A.
The kinetic pathway for the Na+-induced slow --> fast transition of thrombin was characterized. The slow form was shown to consist of two conformers in a 3:1 ratio (ES2:ES1) at 5 degrees C, pH 7.4, Gamma/2 0.3. ES2 binds Na+ 3 orders of magnitude faster than does ES1. The small molecule active site-directed inhibitor L-371,912, and the exosite I binding ligand hirugen, like Na+, bind selectively to ES2 and induce the slow --> fast conversion of thrombin. The slow --> fast transition is limited by the rate of conversion of ES1 to ES2 (k approximately 28 s-1 at 5 degrees C). Replacement of Arg-221a or Lys-224 at the Na+ binding site with Ala appears to selectively alter the slow form and reduce the apparent affinity of the mutants for Na+ and L-371,912. This replacement, however, has little effect on the affinity for the inhibitor in the presence of saturating concentrations of Na+. The kinetically linked ligand binding at the Na+ binding site, exosite I, and the active site of thrombin characterized in the present study indicates the basis for the plasticity of this important enzyme, and suggests the possibility that the substrate specificity and, therefore, the procoagulant and anticoagulant activities of thrombin may be subject to allosteric regulation by as yet unidentified physiologically important effectors.