Complement Inhibition: Attacking the Overshooting Inflammation @fter Traumatic Brain Injury - A phase II trial on the safety and efficacy of C1 esterase inhibitor Cinryze for the acute management of severe traumatic brain injury - CIAO@TBI
Prospective, open-label, single arm, multicenter, pharmacokinetic, and safety study of a single dose intravenous human plasma-derived C1 Esterase Inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate in patients with congenital C1-INH deficiency and hereditary angioedema - CONE-01
Experimental and Theoretical Biological Probing of Schiff Bases as Esterase Inhibitors: Structural, Spectral and Molecular Insights.
作者: Muhammad Asam Raza ; Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz ; Seyhan Öztürk ; Muhammad Latif ; Aisha ; Adnan Ashraf ; Necmi Dege ; Onur Erman Dogan ; Erbil Agar ; Shafiq Ur Rehman ; Awal Noor
The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in silico potential of the Schiff bases (Z)-4-ethoxy-N-((5-nitrothiophen-2-yl)methylene)benzenamine (1) and (Z)-2,4-diiodo-6-((2-methyl-3-nitrophenylimino)methyl)phenol (2). These Schiff bases were synthesized according to a reported method using ethanol as a solvent, and each reaction was monitored on a TLC until completion of the reaction. The structures of both compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Molecular structure was determined using single-crystal XRD, which revealed that compounds 1 and 2 were monoclinic and triclinic, respectively. Hirshfeld surface analysis (HS) and 2D fingerprint plots were used to determine the intermolecular interactions along the contact contribution in the crystalline molecules. The structures of both compounds were optimized through a hybrid functional method B3LYP using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, and various structural parameters were studied. The experimental and theoretical parameters (bond angle and bond length) of the compounds were compared with each other and are in close agreement. The in vitro esterase potential of the synthesized compounds was checked using a spectrophotometric model, while in silico molecular docking studies were performed with AutoDock against two enzymes of the esterase family. The docking studies and the in vitro assessment predicted that such molecules could be used as enzyme inhibitors against the tested enzymes: acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and butyrylcholine esterase (BChE).
2023-07-18·Applied microbiology and biotechnology
Ameliorative effects of probiotics in AlCl3-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
作者: Maryam Hamid ; Saadia Zahid
In recent years, gut microbiome alterations have been linked with complex underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The gut microbiota modulates gut brain axis by facilitating development of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and synthesis of neuromodulators. The study was designed to unravel the effect of combined consumption of probiotics; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium BB-12 (BB-12®) (1 × 109 CFU) on AlCl3-induced AD mouse model in comparison with potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor drug for AD, donepezil. Mice were randomly allocated to six different study groups (n = 8). Behavioral tests were conducted to assess effect of AlCl3 (300 mg/kg) and probiotics treatment on cognition and anxiety through Morris Water Maze (MWM), Novel Object Recognition (NOR), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and Y-maze. The results indicated that the combined probiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced anxiety-like behavior post AlCl3 exposure. The AlCl3 + LGG® and BB-12®-treated group showed significantly improved spatial (p < 0.0001) and recognition memory (p < 0.0001) in comparison to AlCl3-treated group. The expression status of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) was also normalized upon treatment with LGG® and BB-12® post AlCl3 exposure. Our findings indicated that the probiotics LGG® and BB-12® have strong potential to overcome neuroinflammatory imbalance, cognitive deficits and anxiety-like behavior, therefore can be considered as a combination therapy for AD through modulation of gut brain axis. KEY POINTS: • Bifidobacterium BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were fed to AlCl3-induced Alzheimer's disease mice. • This combination of probiotics had remarkable ameliorating effects on anxiety, neuroinflammation and cognitive deficits. • These effects may suggest that combined consumption of these probiotics instigate potential mitigation of AD associated consequences through gut brain axis modulation.
2023-06-21·European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics
Hydrolytic Metabolism of Withangulatin A Mediated by Serum Albumin Instead of Common Esterases in Plasma.
作者: Yu Zhuang ; Yuxiao Wang ; Ning Li ; Haitao Meng ; Zhiyu Li ; Jianguang Luo ; Zhixia Qiu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The oral bioavailability of withangulatin A (WA) is low and may undergo first-pass metabolism because of the presence of two esters bonds. This study aimed to identify the hydrolysis behavior and mechanism of WA, thus enriching its structure-pharmacokinetic relationship.
The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of WA in rats were first investigated, followed by in vitro assays including metabolic stability, phenotyping identification and metabolic kinetics assays. After screening out the responsible enzymes with higher catalytic capacity, molecular docking study was performed to demonstrate the interaction mode between WA and metabolic enzymes. Then, metabolites in human serum albumin (HSA) were identified by LC-TOF-MS/MS.
In rats, the oral bioavailability of WA was only 2.83%. In vitro, WA was hydrolyzed in both rat and human plasma and could not be inhibited by selective esterase inhibitors. Physiologic concentration of HSA not recombinant human carboxylesterases (rhCES) could significantly hydrolyze WA, and it had a similar hydrolytic capacity with human plasma to WA. Furthermore, WA could stably bind to HSA by forming hydrogen bonds with Lys199 and Arg410, accompanied by the metabolic reaction of the lactone ring opening.
The study showed that WA underwent obvious hydrolysis in rat and human plasma, which implied a strong first-pass effect. Serum albumin rather than common esterases primarily contributed to the hydrolytic metabolism of WA in plasma.