2023-08-21·Signal transduction and targeted therapy
Rough operators: sphingomyelinase inhibitors spike NK cells to kill cancer.
作者: Mattias Carlsten ; Yenan T Bryceson
2023-07-26·European journal of medicinal chemistry
Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 inhibitors based on the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-amine scaffold.
作者: Katerina Novotna ; Ajit G Thomas ; Ondrej Stepanek ; Brennan Murphy ; Niyada Hin ; Jan Skacel ; Louis Mueller ; Lukas Tenora ; Arindom Pal ; Jesse Alt ; Ying Wu ; James Paule ; Rana Rais ; Barbara S Slusher ; Takashi Tsukamoto
Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) has gained increasing attention as a therapeutic target to regulate ceramide production in various disease conditions. Phenyl (R)-(1-(3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,6-dimethylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-8-yl)-pyrrolidin-3-yl)carbamate (PDDC) is a submicromolar nSMase2 inhibitor and has been widely used to study the pharmacological effects of nSMase2 inhibition. Through screening of compounds containing a bicyclic 5-6 fused ring, larotrectinib containing a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine ring was identified as a low micromolar inhibitor of nSMase2. This prompted us to investigate the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-amine ring as a novel scaffold to replace the imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-8-amine ring of PDDC. A series of molecules containing a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-amine ring were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit human nSMase2. Several compounds exhibited nSMase2 inhibitory potency superior to that of PDDC. Among these, N,N-dimethyl-5-morpholinopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-amine (11j) was found to be metabolically stable in liver microsomes and orally available with a favorable brain-to-plasma ratio, demonstrating the potential of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine ring as an effective scaffold for nSMase2 inhibition.
2023-07-12·Cell structure and function
Sphingomyelin metabolism underlies Ras excitability for efficient cell migration and chemotaxis.
作者: Da Young Shin ; Hiroaki Takagi ; Michio Hiroshima ; Satomi Matsuoka ; Masahiro Ueda
In eukaryotic motile cells, the active Ras (Ras-GTP)-enriched domain is generated in an asymmetric manner on the cell membrane through the excitable dynamics of an intracellular signaling network. This asymmetric Ras signaling regulates pseudopod formation for both spontaneous random migration and chemoattractant-induced directional migration. While membrane lipids, such as sphingomyelin and phosphatidylserine, contribute to Ras signaling in various cell types, whether they are involved in the Ras excitability for cell motility is unknown. Here we report that functional Ras excitability requires the normal metabolism of sphingomyelin for efficient cell motility and chemotaxis. The pharmacological blockade of sphingomyelin metabolism by an acid-sphingomyelinase inhibitor, fendiline, and other inhibitors suppressed the excitable generation of the stable Ras-GTP-enriched domain. The suppressed excitability failed to invoke enough basal motility to achieve directed migration under shallow chemoattractant gradients. The fendiline-induced defects in Ras excitability, motility and stimulation-elicited directionality were due to an accumulation of sphingomyelin on the membrane, which could be recovered by exogenous sphingomyelinase or phosphatidylserine without changing the expression of Ras. These results indicate a novel regulatory mechanism of the excitable system by membrane lipids, in which sphingomyelin metabolism provides a membrane environment to ensure Ras excitation for efficient cellular motility and chemotaxis. Key Words: Cell polarity, Cell migration, Ras, Excitability, Sphingomyelin.