2022-09-03·International journal of molecular sciences
Synthetic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605) Prevents Asbestos-Induced Inflammation and Genotoxic Cell Damage in Human Mesothelial Cells.
作者: Ralph A Pietrofesa ; Shampa Chatterjee ; Yuwaraj Kadariya ; Joseph R Testa ; Steven M Albelda ; Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
Although alveolar macrophages play a critical role in malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure, inflammatory and oxidative processes continue to occur in the mesothelial cells lining the pleura that may contribute to the carcinogenic process. Malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure occurs over several decades; however, amelioration of DNA damage, inflammation, and cell injury may impede the carcinogenic process. We have shown in an in vitro model of asbestos-induced macrophage activation that synthetic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (LGM2605), given preventively, reduced inflammatory cascades and oxidative/nitrosative cell damage. Therefore, it was hypothesized that LGM2605 could also be effective in reducing asbestos-induced activation and the damage of pleural mesothelial cells. LGM2605 treatment (50 µM) of huma n pleural mesothelial cells was initiated 4 h prior to exposure to asbestos (crocidolite, 20 µg/cm2). Supernatant and cells were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h post asbestos exposure for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage (oxidized guanine), inflammasome activation (caspase-1 activity) and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine release (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα, and HMGB1), and markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (8-iso-PGF2α). Asbestos induced a time-dependent ROS increase that was significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced (29.4%) by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 pretreatment also reduced levels of asbestos-induced DNA damage by 73.6% ± 1.0%. Although levels of inflammasome-activated cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, reached 29.2 pg/mL ± 0.7 pg/mL and 43.9 pg/mL ± 0.8 pg/mL, respectively, LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced cytokine levels comparable to baseline (non-asbestos exposed) values (3.8 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL and 5.4 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, levels of IL-6 and TNFα in asbestos-exposed mesothelial cells were high (289.1 pg/mL ± 2.9 pg/mL and 511.3 pg/mL ± 10.2 pg/mL, respectively), while remaining undetectable with LGM2605 pretreatment. HMGB1 (a key inflammatory mediator and initiator of malignant transformation) release was reduced 75.3% ± 0.4% by LGM2605. Levels of MDA and 8-iso-PGF2α, markers of oxidative cell injury, were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by 80.5% ± 0.1% and 76.6% ± 0.3%, respectively. LGM2605, given preventively, reduced ROS generation, DNA damage, and inflammasome-activated cytokine release and key inflammatory mediators implicated in asbestos-induced malignant transformation of normal mesothelial cells.
2021-10-12·International journal of molecular sciences2区 · 生物学
Late Inflammation Induced by Asbestiform Fibers in Mice Is Ameliorated by a Small Molecule Synthetic Lignan.
2区 · 生物学
作者: Reagan Badger ; Kyewon Park ; Ralph A Pietrofesa ; Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou ; Kinta M Serve
Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) asbestos-like fibers is associated with increased risk of asbestosis, mesothelioma, pulmonary disease, and systemic autoimmune disease. LGM2605 is a small molecule antioxidant and free radical scavenger, with anti-inflammatory effects in various disease models. The current study aimed to determine whether the protective effects of LGM2605 persist during the late inflammatory phase post-LA exposure. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were administered daily LGM2605 (100 mg/kg) via gel cups for 3 days before and 14 days after a 200 µg LA given via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Control mice were given unsupplemented gel cups and an equivalent dose of i.p. saline. On day 14 post-LA treatment, peritoneal lavage was assessed for immune cell influx, cytokine concentrations, oxidative stress biomarkers, and immunoglobulins. During the late inflammatory phase post-LA exposure, we noted an alteration in trafficking of both innate and adaptive immune cells, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations, induction of immunoglobulin isotype switching, and increased oxidized guanine species. LGM2605 countered these changes similarly among male and female mice, ameliorating late inflammation and altering immune responses in late post-LA exposure. These data support possible efficacy of LGM2605 in the prolonged treatment of LA-associated disease and other inflammatory conditions.
2021-08-31·International journal of molecular sciences2区 · 生物学
Copper Oxide Nanoparticle-Induced Acute Inflammatory Response and Injury in Murine Lung Is Ameliorated by Synthetic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605).
2区 · 生物学
作者: Ralph A Pietrofesa ; Kyewon Park ; Om P Mishra ; Darrah Johnson-McDaniel ; Jacob W Myerson ; Vladimir V Shuvaev ; Evguenia Arguiri ; Shampa Chatterjee ; Ganesh S Moorthy ; Athena Zuppa ; Wei-Ting Hwang ; Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
Metal-oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs), such as the highly bioreactive copper-based nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), are widely used in manufacturing of hundreds of commercial products. Epidemiological studies correlated levels of nanoparticles in ambient air with a significant increase in lung disease. CuO-NPs, specifically, were among the most potent in a set of metal-oxides and carbons studied in parallel regarding DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Despite advances in nanotoxicology research and the characterization of their toxicity, the exact mechanism(s) of toxicity are yet to be defined. We identified chlorination toxicity as a damaging consequence of inflammation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activation, resulting in macromolecular damage and cell damage/death. We hypothesized that the inhalation of CuO-NPs elicits an inflammatory response resulting in chlorination damage in cells and lung tissues. We further tested the protective action of LGM2605, a synthetic small molecule with known scavenging properties for reactive oxygen species (ROS), but most importantly, for active chlorine species (ACS) and an inhibitor of MPO. CuO-NPs (15 µg/bolus) were instilled intranasally in mice and the kinetics of the inflammatory response in lungs was evaluated 1, 3, and 7 days later. Evaluation of the protective action of LGM2605 was performed at 24 h post-challenge, which was selected as the peak acute inflammatory response to CuO-NP. LGM2605 was given daily via gavage to mice starting 2 days prior to the time of the insult (100 mg/kg). CuO-NPs induced a significant inflammatory influx, inflammasome-relevant cytokine release, and chlorination damage in mouse lungs, which was mitigated by the action of LGM2605. Preventive action of LGM2605 ameliorated the adverse effects of CuO-NP in lung.