Impact of recurring intermediate insulin-induced hypoglycemia on hypothalamic paraventricular corticotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin, vasopressin and glucokinase gene profiles: role of type II glucocorticoid receptors
4区 · 医学
作者: Briski, Karen P. ; Kale, Ajay Y. ; Vavaiya, Kamlesh V.
Activation of central type II glucocorticoid receptors (GR) during neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH) administration exacerbates recurring hypoglycemia. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) integrates metabolic sensory input, controls autonomic and neuroendocrine motor outflow, and is characterized by abundant GR expression. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that PVN GR mediate intensification of hypoglycemia by serial NPH dosing, and that PVN glucokinase (GCK) and glucoregulatory neuropeptide genes acclimate to this treatment paradigm through GR-dependent mechanisms. Groups of adult male rats were injected subcutaneously with one or four doses of NPH, on as many days, while controls received vehicle. Bilateral administration of the selective GR antagonist, CP-472555, into the PVN prior to the first three NPH injections prevented amplification of hypoglycemia in response to the final insulin dose, while intra-PVN delivery of the GR agonist, dexamethasone, to euglycemic rats did not modify ensuing NPH-induced hypoglycemia. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of microdissected PVN tissue revealed that GCK, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), oxytocin (OT), and vasopressin (VP) mRNA levels were unchanged in response to acute NPH, and baseline gene profiles measured 24 h after antecedent injections were similar to vehicle controls. In contrast, serial dosing with NPH elevated CRH and GCK, diminished OT, but did not alter VP gene transcripts. Intracerebroventricular CP-472555 delivery in conjunction with antecedent NPH dosing prevented transcriptional habituation of GCK and OT genes, but did not modify CRH or VP mRNA profiles. The present data show that activation of PVN GR during antecedent intermediate insulin-induced hypoglycemia is required for exacerbation of recurring hypoglycemia, and receptor stimulation in the absence of hypoglycemia and/or its sequelae does not intensify the effects of subsequent NPH administration. The results also provide evidence for acclimation of PVN CRH, GCK, and OT gene profiles to serial NPH dosing, and demonstrate that GR may be involved in GCK and OT transcriptional adaptation to ongoing intermediate insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
2006-11-01·Neuroscience Research (Amsterdam, Netherlands)4区 · 医学
Type II glucocorticoid receptor involvement in habituated activation of lateral hypothalamic area orexin-A-immunopositive neurons during recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia
4区 · 医学
作者: Kale, Ajay Y. ; Paranjape, Sachin A. ; Briski, Karen P.
Neurons that synthesize the potent orexigenic neuropeptide, orexin-A (ORX-A) are confined to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and adjacent structures, and project throughout the central neuroaxis to structures that govern central nervous system responses to energy imbalance. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) upregulates prepro-orexin mRNA and Fos immunostaining of LHA ORX-A neurons. These neurons apparently become desensitized to this metabolic challenge, since both responses are diminished by recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH). Recent studies implicate central type II glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in RIIH-associated glucose counterregulatory collapse and decline in Fos labeling of central metabolic loci, including the LHA. The present studies evaluated the role of GR in patterns of LHA ORX-A neuronal transcriptional activation during RIIH. Groups of adult male rats were injected subcutaneously with one or four doses of the intermediate-acting insulin, Humulin NPH, on as many days, or with diluent alone. Rats injected with four doses of insulin were pretreated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the selective GR antagonist, CP-472555, or the vehicle, propylene glycol, prior to insulin administration on days 1-3. All animals were sacrificed by transcardial perfusion 2h after injections on day 4. Processing of LHA tissue sections for dual-immunoperoxidase staining of ORX-A- and Fos-immunoreactivity (-ir) showed that colabeling of ORX-A neurons for Fos was increased by a single injection of NPH, whereas this genomic response was diminished by RIIH. Icv administration of CP-472555 during antecedent hypoglycemia prevented RIIH-associated reductions in Fos expression by these neurons. Antagonist treatment of diluent-injected controls did not alter mean numbers of ORX-A- plus Fos-ir neurons. Total numbers of ORX-A-immunopositive neurons were not different among treatment groups. These data demonstrate that precedent central GR blockade prevents adaptation of LHA ORX-A neuronal reactivity to RIIH. These results provide unique pharmacological evidence that hypoglycemic hypercorticosteronemia diminishes activation of this neurotransmitter phenotype in this critical metabolic structure to subsequent hypoglycemia via central GR-dependent mechanisms.
2006-07-31·Brain Research Bulletin3区 · 医学
Effects of acute and chronic insulin-induced hypoglycemia on type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression in characterized CNS metabolic loci
3区 · 医学
作者: Kale, Ajay Y. ; Vavaiya, Kamlesh V. ; Briski, Karen P.
The metabolic stressor, hypoglycemia, elicits integrated counterregulatory responses, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Type II glucocorticoid receptors (GR) occur in multiple components of the central autonomic circuitry that regulates glucostasis, and antecedent GR stimulation is implicated in impaired glucagon and counterregulatory dysfunction during recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH). To examine the hypothesis that this chronic stress may alter basal and/or hypoglycemic patterns of GR gene expression in a site-specific manner, real-time RT-PCR techniques were utilized to evaluate tissue GR mRNA levels in the microdissected lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and paraventricular (PVH), dorsomedial (DMH), ventromedial (VMH), and arcuate (ARH) hypothalamic nuclei, before and after one or four injections, on as many days, of the intermediate-acting insulin formulation, Humulin NPH (NPH), while controls were treated with diluent alone. Rats injected with four doses of NPH were pretreated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the selective nonsteroidal GR antagonist, CP-472555, or vehicle alone prior to insulin injections on days 1-3. The results show that acute hypoglycemia had no impact on GR mRNA levels in each structure evaluated. Basal GR gene expression was not altered by antecedent hypoglycemia, but tissue transcript levels were elevated in the DMH, PVH, VMH, and ARH during RIIH. Icv CP-472555 administration prior to antecedent hypoglycemia prevented RIIH-associated increases in GR mRNA in each of these sites. These data show that GR gene transcripts are increased in discrete CNS metabolic loci during RIIH, and that these local responses are attenuated by pharmacological blockade of central GR activation. The present studies demonstrate that hypoglycemic hypercorticosteronemia causes upregulated GR gene expression during RIIH, and implicate GR in mechanisms underlying this action.