A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, and Single Dose-escalation Trial of AGS-009 Administered in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
This trial is conducted in North America. The aim of this clinical trial is to investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and signs of bioactivity of increasing single doses of AGS-009 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Reduced Chronic Lymphocyte Activation following Interferon Alpha Blockade during the Acute Phase of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques.
2区 · 医学
作者: Diane Carnathan ; Benton Lawson ; Joana Yu ; Kalpana Patel ; James M Billingsley ; Gregory K Tharp ; Olivia M Delmas ; Reem Dawoud ; Peter Wilkinson ; Charles Nicolette ; Mark J Cameron ; Rafick-Pierre Sekaly ; Steven E Bosinger ; Guido Silvestri ; Thomas H Vanderford
Pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of humans and rhesus macaques (RMs) induces persistently high production of type I interferon (IFN-I), which is thought to contribute to disease progression. To elucidate the specific role of interferon alpha (IFN-α) in SIV pathogenesis, 12 RMs were treated prior to intravenous (i.v.) SIVmac239 infection with a high or a low dose of an antibody (AGS-009) that neutralizes most IFN-α subtypes and were compared with six mock-infused, SIV-infected controls. Plasma viremia was measured postinfection to assess the effect of IFN-α blockade on virus replication, and peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue samples were analyzed by immunophenotypic staining. Consistent with the known antiviral effect of IFN-I, high-dose AGS-009 treatment induced a modest increase in acute-phase viral loads versus controls. Four out of 6 RMs receiving a high dose of AGS-009 also experienced an early decline in CD4+ T cell counts that was associated with progression to AIDS. Interestingly, 50% of the animals treated with AGS-009 (6/12) developed AIDS within 1 year of infection compared with 17% (1/6) of untreated controls. Finally, blockade of IFN-α decreased the levels of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as B cells, as measured by PD-1 and/or Ki67 expression. The lower levels of activated lymphocytes in IFN-α-blockaded animals supports the hypothesis that IFN-α signaling contributes to lymphocyte activation during SIV infection and suggests that this signaling pathway is involved in controlling virus replication during acute infection. The potential anti-inflammatory effect of IFN-α blockade should be explored as a strategy to reduce immune activation in HIV-infected individuals.IMPORTANCE Interferon alpha (IFN-α) is a member of a family of molecules (type I interferons) that prevent or limit virus infections in mammals. However, IFN-α production may contribute to the chronic immune activation that is thought to be the primary cause of immune decline and AIDS in HIV-infected patients. The study presented here attempts to understand the contribution of IFN-α to the natural history and progression of SIV infection of rhesus macaques, the primary nonhuman primate model system for testing hypotheses about HIV infection in humans. Here, we show that blockade of IFN-α action promotes lower chronic immune activation but higher early viral loads, with a trend toward faster disease progression. This study has significant implications for new treatments designed to impact the type I interferon system.
2015-05-01·Drugs1区 · 医学
Targeting Interferons in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Current and Future Prospects
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology that can be debilitating and life threatening. As new insights are gained into the underlying pathology of SLE, there have been an unprecedented number of new agents under development to treat the disease via a diverse range of targets. One such class of emerging agents target interferon (IFN) signalling. In this article, we review the preclinical evidence that the inhibition of the secretion and downstream effectors of both IFN-α and IFN-γ may be effective for the treatment of SLE. The primary agents that are currently in clinical development to treat SLE via the targeting of interferon pathways are monoclonal neutralising antibodies (Mab) that bind to and neutralise IFN-γ (AMG 811), IFN-α (sifalimumab, rontalizumab and AGS-009) or its receptor (anifrolumab), and IFN-α kinoid, which is a drug composed of inactivated IFN-α molecules coupled to the keyhole limpet haemocyanin protein. Phase I and II trials have demonstrated acceptable short-term safety with no increase in severe viral infections or reactivation, favourable pharmacokinetic profiles and an inhibition of IFN-associated gene overexpression; however, the impact of these drugs on disease activity must still be assessed in phase III clinical trials. This review concludes with a summary of the challenges that are inherent to this approach to managing SLE.