Fixed Low-dose Heparin Versus Standard Adjusted-dose Heparin Infusion in Adults Receiving Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) With a Heparin Bonded Circuit.
Heparin is a blood thinner used to prevent blood clots in patients on a form of life-support called ECMO. Heparin can cause bleeding - the most common complication of ECMO. New materials used in ECMO machines may help prevent clots - this could allow the use of lower doses of heparin which might reduce the risk of bleeding. Our study will compare low dose to high dose heparin in patients on ECMO. We think low dose heparin may be adequate to prevent clotting, but may cause less bleeding and be safer for patients.
According to the Venous Blood HBsAg State of Neonatus at Birth, Discussing the Efficiency of Personalized Blocking Method of HBV Maternal-neonatal Transmission in High-risk Newborns
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a serious liver disease worldwide，HBV MTCT is the important reason to keep high prevalence of chronic HBV infection in China. Intrapartum infection is the main period of neonatal HBV infection. Injecting HBIG and hepatitis b vaccine immediately after birth is the most important method of blocking mother-to-child transmission of HBV. However, regular doses of HBIG combined with hepatitis b vaccine blocking measures still have a failure rate as high as 5% 15%.There are numerous studies to explore pregnancy women with HBV positive, especially high viral load of those women during pregnancy being treated with nucleoside analogs to increase the blocking rate of HBV MTCT, but there is still a failure rate of 2.2% to 18%. In this study, we will explore the efficiency of personalized blocking method of HBV maternal-neonatal transmission in high-risk newborns,according to the venous blood HBsAg state of neonatus at birth.
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the primary cause of chronic HBV infection worldwide. MTCT prevention and antiviral treatment of infected individuals could eliminate this public health burden. Antiviral treatment of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive pregnant women and immunoprophylaxis with HBV vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin are the most effective strategies to interfere with MTCT of HBV. However, for worldwide application of those strategies, feasibility, availability, cost, safety, and effectiveness should be considered. Cesarean section and breastfeeding avoidance in hepatitis B e antigen-positive mothers with a high viral load and without antiviral therapy during pregnancy could be an option, but more supporting evidence is needed. HBsAg screening of all pregnant women is recommended when initiating antiviral therapy and immunoprophylaxis for MTCT prevention, except in areas with limited resources. Timely HBV vaccination series administered soon after birth might be the mainstay of prevention. This review aimed to provide a concise update on the effectiveness of available strategies to prevent MTCT of HBV.
Cost-effectiveness of tenofovir prophylaxis during pregnancy for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B virus: real-world analysis from Thailand.
Despite implementing hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and vaccination, data suggest it would not be sufficient to reach the elimination targets. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been added to the Thai national standards of care for prevention of transmission of the hepatitis B virus during birth. To optimise national strategies in Thailand, we assessed TDF's effectiveness for prevention of mother-to-child transmission and conducted cost-effectiveness analyses of different TDF-based strategies.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
We retrospectively reviewed medical records of mother and infant pairs whose mothers were positive for hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and received TDF to prevent maternal transmission of viral hepatitis B during 2018-2020. Based on the available data on transmission rate, we also applied a decision tree to estimate the cost-effectiveness of different TDF-based strategies to eligible mothers. These included: (1) HBIG for all hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposed infants; (2) HBIG for only infants of HBeAg-positive mothers ('HBIG for e-positive') and (3) without HBIG to infants ('HBIG-free'). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between the different strategies and baseline intervention without TDF was calculated. The one-way sensitivity analysis was used to adjust prevalence of HBeAg-positive mothers, cost of HBIG, cost of TDF and transmission rate.
Of 223 infants enrolled, 212 (95.0%) received HBIG, while 11 (5.0%) did not. None of the infants had chronic HBV infection. The most cost-saving intervention was 'HBIG-free' followed by 'HBIG for e-positive'. The one-way sensitivity demonstrated that the results were reasonably robust to changes. The cost-saving was greater with a higher hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence. The HBIG-free strategy remained best at 0%-1.4% transmission rates, meeting the additional target for eliminations.
The study is the first cost-effectiveness analyses to provide evidence supporting an HBIG-free strategy in an antiviral era. This approach should be considered to prevent mother-to-child transmission in resource-constrained settings, particularly in countries with a high HBsAg prevalence.
Exploring the optimal vaccination strategy against hepatitis B virus in childhood (Review).
作者: Anna Kramvis ; Ioannis N Mammas ; Demetrios A Spandidos
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the most effective strategy against HBV infection in humans. The present review summarized the optimal vaccination strategies against HBV in childhood. The following points are discussed: i) When and how the first HBV vaccines were developed; ii) the dosages, schedules and injection routes that are used for HBV vaccination; iii) the contraindications for HBV vaccination in the general paediatric population; iv) the challenges with the use of multivalent vaccines; v) the long-term immunogenicity and duration of protection against HBV; vi) the use of selective HBV vaccination and the hepatitis B immune globulin strategy in HBV-exposed infants; and vii) the effectiveness of the current HBV vaccination schemes. The present review is based on a Paediatric Virology Study Group (PVSG) webinar performed in the context of the 8th Workshop on Paediatric Virology.