Examining the Retinal Renin Angiotensin System (RRAS) in the ROP neonates and analyzing the possibility of modulating the RRAS to prevent the progression in Oxygen Induced Retinopathy (OIR) model.
Vitreous of ROP patients (n = 44, median age 5.5 months) was quantified for RRAS components, VEGF, HIF-1α and compared with age matched control. The involvement of RRAS in ROP was tested in the rat model of OIR and compared with normoxia. Expressions of RAS components, VEGF and HIF-1α in retina were analyzed using qPCR and retinal structure and function was also analyzed. Effect of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI) and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) was evaluated and compared with Bevacizumab which served as a positive control. Drug penetration into retina was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled ESI-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS).
Multifold increase in the expression of RAS components in human vitreous and rat retina showed their involvement in ROP. ERG & fundus studies in OIR revealed the altered function of retina and were successfully prevented by ARB (telmisartan), ACEI (lisinopril) and bevacizumab. Retinal analysis revealed the presence of ACEI and ARB in their therapeutic levels.
This study for the first time demonstrates the upregulated level of RAS components in human ROP vitreous and further that the pharmacological intervention in RRAS can functionally and structurally preserve retina against the progression of ROP in the OIR model.
2014-03-01·Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism2区 · 医学
Bradykinin antagonist counteracts the acute effect of both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and of angiotensin receptor blockade on the lower limit of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow
2区 · 医学
作者: Sigurdsson, Sigurdur T. ; Paulson, Olaf B. ; Hoej Nielsen, Arne ; Strandgaard, Svend
The lower limit of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be modulated with both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). The influence of bradykinin antagonism on ARB-induced changes was the subject of this study. CBF was measured in Sprague-Dawley rats with laser Doppler technique. The blood pressure was lowered by controlled bleeding. Six groups of rats were studied: a control group and five groups given drugs intravenously: an ACE inhibitor (enalaprilat), an ARB (candesartan), a bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist (Hoe 140), a combination of enalaprilat and Hoe 140, and a combination of candesartan and Hoe 140. In the control group, the lower limit of CBF autoregulation was 54±9 mm Hg (mean±s.d.), with enalaprilat it was 46±6, with candesartan 39±8, with Hoe 140 53±6, with enalaprilat/Hoe 140 52±6, and with candesartan/Hoe 140 50±7. Both enalaprilat and candesartan lowered the lower limit of autoregulation of CBF significantly. The bradykinin antagonist abolished not only the effect of the ACE inhibitor but surprisingly also the effect of the ARB on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation, the latter suggesting an effect on intravascular bradykinin.
2003-11-01·Molecular Cancer Therapeutics2区 · 医学
Angiotensin II receptor blocker shows antiproliferative activity in prostate cancer cells: A possibility of tyrosine kinase inhibitor of growth factor
Angiotensin II (A-II) receptor (AT(1) receptor) blockers (ARB) are a class of antihypertensive agent. It is known that they suppress signal transduction pathways mediated by growth factors [e.g., epidermal growth factor (EGF)] through the AT(1) receptor in vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that A-II activates the cell proliferation of prostate cancer as well as EGF. In addition, we showed that A-II induces the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in prostate cancer cells. In contrast, ARB was shown to inhibit the proliferation of prostate cancer cells stimulated with EGF or A-II, the mechanism of which is through the suppression of MAPK or STAT3 phosphorylation by ARB. Oral administration of ARB to nude mice inhibited the growth of prostate cancer xenografts in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent cells in a dose-dependent manner. Microvessel density was reduced in xenografts treated with ARB, which means ARB inhibits the vascularization of xenografts. Expression of AT(1) receptor mRNA was examined by reverse transcription-PCR using 10 pairs of human prostate cancer and normal prostate tissues. AT(1) receptor expression in human prostate cancer tissue was higher (9 of 10 cases) than that in normal prostate tissue. These results suggest the possibility that ARB is a novel therapeutic class of agents for prostate cancer, especially hormone-independent tumors.