The Müllerian duct (MD), the primordium of the female reproductive tract, is also formed in males during the early stage of development, then regresses due to the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) secreted from the testes. However, the detailed diffusion pathway of AMH remains unclear. We herein investigated the mechanism by which AMH reaches the middle region of the MD using an organ culture system.
Injection of recombinant human AMH into the testis around the start of MD regression induced diffuse immunoreactivity in the mesonephros near the injection site. When the testis and mesonephros were cultured separately, the diameters of both cranial and middle MDs were significantly increased compared to the control. In the testis-mesonephros complex cultured by inhibiting the diffusion of AMH through the cranial region, the cranial MD diameter was significantly increased compared to the control, and there was no difference in middle MD diameter.
These results indicate that AMH, which infiltrates from the testis through the cranial region at physiological concentrations, induces regression of the cranial MD at the start of MD regression. They also indicate that AMH infiltrating through the caudal regions induces regression of the middle MD.
The Effects of H2S and Recombinant Human Hsp70 on Inflammation Induced by SARS and Other Agents In Vitro and In Vivo.
作者: Sergei Onikienko ; Maxim Vinokurov ; Marina Yurinskaya ; Alexander Zemlyanoi ; Sergei Abkin ; Elvira Shaykhutdinova ; Victor Palikov ; Alexander Ivanov ; Olga Smirnova ; Irina Fedyakina ; Natalia Bychkova ; Olga Zatsepina ; David Garbuz ; Michael Evgen'ev
The ongoing epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection led to the search for fundamentally new ways and means to combat inflammation and other pathologies caused by this virus. Using a cellular model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis (human promonocytes), we showed that both a hydrogen sulfide donor (sodium thiosulfate, STS) and a recombinant Heat shock protein 70 (rHsp70) effectively block all major inflammatory mediators when administrated before and after LPS challenge. The protective anti-inflammatory effect of rHsp70 and H2S was also confirmed in vivo using various animal models of pneumonia. Specifically, it was found that rHsp70 injections prevented the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome in highly pathogenic pneumonia in mice, increased animal survival, and reduced the number of Programmed death-1 (PD-1)-positive T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Based on our model experiments we developed a combined two-phase therapeutic approach for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. This procedure includes the inhalation of hot helium-oxygen mixtures for induction of endogenous Hsp70 in the first phase and STS inhalation in the second phase. The use of this approach has yielded positive results in COVID-19 patients, reducing the area of lung lesions, restoring parameters of innate immunity and T-cell immune response against coronavirus infection, and preventing the development of pulmonary fibrosis and immune exhaustion syndrome.
2021-11-01·ANZ journal of surgery4区 · 医学
Reduction in post-operative pancreatic fistula with polyethylene glycol and recombinant human albumin sealant following stapled distal pancreatectomy.
4区 · 医学
作者: Benjamin J Privett ; Marcos V Perini ; Laurence Weinberg ; Michael A Fink ; Vijayaragavan Muralidharan ; Eunice Lee ; Graham Starkey ; Robert Jones ; Yi-Ju Lin ; Mehrdad Nikfarjam
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a significant cause of morbidity in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy (DP). The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and recombinant human albumin sealant gel applied to the transected pancreatic margin in DP may reduce POPF rates and was assessed.
A retrospective single centre cohort study of patient undergoing DP at an Australian high volume tertiary institution between January 2015 and January 2021. Rates of POPF in patients undergoing stapled pancreatic transection with PEG sealant were compared to other methods.
A total of 54 cases were identified for analysis, with 16 undergoing stapled DP combined with staple line application of PEG (PEG group). Most patients in the control group had stapled DP 92% (35 of 38), with 47% (18 of 38) combined with a reinforcing buttress, with or without the use other glue types. Overall, 28 of 54 (52%) developed a POPF, with a significantly lower rate in the PEG group (3 of 16 vs. 25 of 38 in the Control group; p = 0.003). Clinically significant Grade B/C POPF was lower in the PEG group (0 of 16 vs. 9 of 28 in the Control group; p = 0.045), and patients in the PEG group had a shorter median (range) length of hospital stay (6 [4-14] days vs. 10 [6-41] days p = 0.04).
Stapled DP with the application of PEG and recombinant human albumin sealant to the transection line appears to be associated with a lower rate of clinically significant POPF.