Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations are sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) but inevitably develop resistance to the inhibitors mostly through acquisition of the secondary T790M mutation. Although third-generation EGFR-TKIs overcome this resistance by selectively inhibiting EGFR with EGFR-TKI-sensitizing and T790M mutations, acquired resistance to third-generation EGFR-TKIs invariably develops.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis were performed in an EGFR T790M-mutated NSCLC patient who had progressed after a third-generation EGFR-TKI, TAS-121. EGFR-mutated cell lines were subjected to a cell proliferation assay and western blotting analysis with EGFR-TKIs and a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor.
NGS and FISH analysis revealed EGFR amplification in the resistant cancer cells. While EGFR L858R/T90M-mutated cell line was sensitive to osimertinib or TAS-121 in vitro, EGFR-overexpressing cell lines displayed resistance to these EGFR-TKIs. Western blot analysis showed that EGFR phosphorylation and overexpression of EGFR in cell lines was not suppressed by third-generation EGFR-TKIs. In contrast, an HSP90 inhibitor reduced total and phosphorylated EGFR and inhibited the proliferation of resistant cell lines.
EGFR amplification confers resistance to third-generation EGFR-TKIs which can be overcome by HSP90 inhibition. The results provide a preclinical rationale for the use of HSP90 inhibitors to overcome EGFR amplification-mediated resistance.
2019-12-01·Investigational new drugs3区 · 医学
Phase I study of TAS-121, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations.
Purpose We investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of TAS-121, a novel, potent, and highly selective third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in Japanese patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with EGFR-TKI. Methods This was an open-label, non-randomized, multi-center, dose escalation, phase I study conducted in three phases (dose escalation, expansion, and extension phases). TAS-121 was administered orally once daily (QD) or twice daily (BID) under fasting conditions in a 21-day treatment cycle. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during Cycle 1 of the dose escalation phase. Results In total, 134 patients received treatment. Five and three patients presented a DLT with the QD and BID regimens, respectively. The DLTs were drug-induced liver injury, platelet count decreased, urticaria, interstitial lung disease, and left ventricular failure. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 10 mg/day QD and 8 mg/day BID in the dose escalation phase. The most common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were dermatological toxicity (89.6%), platelet count decreased (67.2%), and pyrexia (44%) among all patients. Rate of discontinuations due to ADRs at the MTD level were 11.1% with TAS-121 10 mg/day QD and 7.9% with TAS-121 8 mg/day BID. Among 86 T790M-positive patients (confirmed by blood serum sampling in most patients), the objective response rate (ORR) was 28% and highest at 8 mg/day BID (39%). Among 16 T790M-negative patients, the ORR was 19%. Conclusions TAS-121 was well tolerated up to the MTD and demonstrated antitumor activity in Japanese T790M-positive NSCLC patients. Clinical trial registration: JapicCTI-142651.
2019-05-01·Molecular cancer therapeutics2区 · 医学
TAS-121, A Selective Mutant EGFR Inhibitor, Shows Activity Against Tumors Expressing Various EGFR Mutations Including T790M and Uncommon Mutations G719X.
TAS-121 is a novel orally active selective covalent inhibitor of the mutant EGFR. We performed preclinical characterization of TAS-121 and compared its efficacy and selectivity for common EGFR mutations (Ex19del and L858R), first- and second- generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) resistance mutation (T790M), and uncommon mutations (G719X and L861Q) with those of other EGFR-TKIs. We also commenced investigation of the clinical benefits of TAS-121. The IC50 for intracellular EGFR phosphorylation was determined by using Jump-In GripTite HEK293 cells transiently transfected with EGFR expression vectors. Mouse xenograft models were used to evaluate the antitumor activity of TAS-121. TAS-121 potently inhibited common activating and resistance EGFR mutations to the same extent as another third-generation EGFR-TKI (osimertinib). In addition, TAS-121 showed equivalent inhibitory activity against some uncommon mutations such as G719X and L861Q. Furthermore, TAS-121 demonstrated greater selectivity for mutant EGFRs versus the wild-type EGFR compared with other EGFR-TKIs. Moreover, TAS-121 displayed antitumor activity in SW48 (EGFR G719S) and NCI-H1975 (EGFR L858R/T790M) xenograft models, and achieved an objective response in patients with NSCLC with EGFR mutations including G719A mutation. In conclusion, TAS-121 is a novel third-generation EGFR-TKI and demonstrates antitumor activities in patients with NSCLC expressing either common or uncommon EGFR mutations.