2013-10-01·Drug and Chemical Toxicology (1977)4区 · 医学
Genotoxicity assessment of NIM-76 and its formulation (pessary) in an in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test
4区 · 医学
作者: Vijayan, Vinod ; Meshram, Ghansham P.
The possible genotoxic potential of NIM-76, a volatile fraction obtained from neem oil, having promising contraceptive activity, as well as its formulation product, called pessary (7.5% NIM-76 in polyethylene glycol), were evaluated in the Ames assay and mouse bone marrow micronucleus (MN) assay. Genotoxicity of NIM-76 (0.1-1000 µg/plate) and pessary (0.1-10,000 µg/plate) were studied using the liquid preincubation protocol of the Ames assay both in the presence and absence of S9. Likewise, the ability of NIM-76 [1-1000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] and its formulation product (18.75-300 mg/kg b.w.) to induce clastogenic effects were studied in the female mouse bone marrow MN test by using a two-dose intraperitoneal treatment protocol. There was no increase in the number of revertant colonies resulting from NIM-76 or pessary at any of their doses over the respective negative control plates, either in the presence or absence of S9. Similarly, in the MN assay, neither of them showed any clastogenic activity because there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, over the negative control group of animals. The use of this compound in humans is therefore not likely to have mutagenic effects and may be considered as safe with regard to genotoxic potential.
2000-08-01·Journal of ethnopharmacology2区 · 医学
Anti-microbial activity of a new vaginal contraceptive NIM-76 from neem oil (Azadirachta indica).
2区 · 医学
作者: M SaiRam ; G Ilavazhagan ; S K Sharma ; S A Dhanraj ; B Suresh ; M M Parida ; A M Jana ; K Devendra ; W Selvamurthy
Efficacy of NIM-76, a spermicidal fraction from neem oil, was investigated for its antimicrobial action against certain bacteria, fungi and Polio virus as compared to whole neem oil. The NIM-76 preparation showed stronger anti-microbial activity than the whole neem oil. It inhibited growth of various pathogens tested including Escherichia coli and Kleibsiella pneumoniae which were not affected by the whole neem oil. NIM-76 also exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans and antiviral activity against Polio virus replication in vero cell lines. It also protected mice from systemic candidiasis as revealed by enhanced % survival and reduced colony forming units of C. albicans in various tissues. This shows that NIM-76 has a potent broad spectrum anti-microbial activity.
1997-01-01·Journal of Ethnopharmacology2区 · 医学
Immunomodulatory effects of NIM-76, a volatile fraction from Neem oil
2区 · 医学
作者: SaiRam, M. ; Sharma, S. K. ; Ilavazhagan, G. ; Kumar, Devendra ; Selvamurthy, W.
The immunomodulatory properties of NIM-76 have been described in this paper. Pre-treatment of rats with a single i.p. injection of NIM-76 resulted in an increase in polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes with a concomitant decrease in lymphocyte counts. The immunomodulatory activity of NIM-76 was found to be concentration-dependent. At 120 mg/kg body weight, there was an enhanced macrophage activity and lymphocyte proliferation response, while the humoral component of immunity was unaffected. At higher concentrations of NIM-76 (300 mg/kg body weight), there was a stimulation of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, while macrophage activity remained unaffected. However, a fall in primary and secondary antibody titres was observed. The study indicates that NIM-76 acts through cell-mediated mechanisms by activating macrophages and lymphocytes.