A Phase 1 Trial of Oral PX-478 (a HIF-1α Inhibitor) in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma
This study is being conducted to determine the safety and biologic activity of PX-478, and to allow for observation of any preliminary evidence of antitumor activity in patients with advanced metastatic cancer.
Respiratory syncytial virus co-opts hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-mediated glycolysis to favor the production of infectious virus.
作者: Li-Feng Chen ; Jun-Xing Cai ; Jing-Jing Zhang ; Yu-Jun Tang ; Jia-Yi Chen ; Si Xiong ; Yao-Lan Li ; Hong Zhang ; Zhong Liu ; Man-Mei Li
Glycolysis, a series of oxidative reactions used to metabolize glucose and provide energy to host cells, is also required for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. However, the role of glycolysis during RSV infection and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be further explored. In this study, we investigated the function of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α-mediated glycolysis in HEp-2 cells and mouse models during RSV infection. The results showed that RSV infection activated the insulin receptor (IR)-PI3K-Akt axis, upregulated the translation and activity of HIF-1α, increased the expression of glucose transporters (Glut1, Glut3, and Glut4), hexokinase (HK) 1 and 2, and platelet-type phosphofructokinase (PFKP), and promoted glucose uptake and glycolysis. In addition, mitochondrial damage induced by RSV resulted in the generation of large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected cells, which contributed to the stabilization and activation of HIF-1α. An energy map of the glycolytic ATP production rate (Glyco-ATP) versus the mitochondrial ATP production rate (mito-ATP) confirmed a switch from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis. Inhibition of IR-PI3K-Akt signaling, ROS, or HIF-1α effectively reversed the RSV-induced increase in glycolysis by blocking HIF-1α activation. Importantly, HIF-1α-mediated glycolysis provided energy for the production of progeny RSV virions. The production of infectious virions was nearly abolished after knocking down HIF-1α. PX-478, an orally active HIF-1α inhibitor, effectively inhibited RSV infection in vivo. Collectively, these results indicate the role of HIF-1α-mediated glycolysis in RSV infection and highlight HIF-1α as a potential target for anti-RSV drug development. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading etiological agent of lower respiratory tract illness. However, efficacious vaccines or antiviral drugs for treating RSV infections are currently not available. Indeed, RSV depends on host cells to provide energy needed to produce progeny virions. Glycolysis is a series of oxidative reactions used to metabolize glucose and provide energy to host cells. Therefore, glycolysis may be helpful for RSV infection. In this study, we show that RSV increases glycolysis by inducing the stabilization, transcription, translation, and activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in infected cells, which is important for the production of progeny RSV virions. This study contributes to understanding the molecular mechanism by which HIF-1α-mediated glycolysis controls RSV infection and reveals an effective target for the development of highly efficient anti-RSV drugs.
2023-09-01·FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
HIF-1α inhibition in macrophages preserves acute liver failure by reducing IL-1β production.
作者: Xiangrong Kong ; Wei Liu ; Xinwen Zhang ; Chendong Zhou ; Xinyu Sun ; Long Cheng ; Jinxia Lin ; Zhifu Xie ; Jingya Li
The development of acute liver failure (ALF) is dependent on its local inducer. Inflammation is a high-frequency and critical factor that accelerates hepatocyte death and liver failure. In response to injury stress, the expression of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in macrophages is promoted by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms, thus promoting the expression and secretion of the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β further induces hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis by signaling through the receptor (IL-1R) on hepatocyte. HIF-1α knockout in macrophages or IL-1R knockout in hepatocytes protects against liver failure. However, whether HIF-1α inhibition in macrophages has a protective role in ALF is unclear. In this study, we revealed that the small molecule HIF-1α inhibitor PX-478 inhibits the expression and secretion of IL-1β, but not tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). PX-478 pretreatment alleviates liver injury in LPS/D-GalN-induced ALF mice by decreasing the hepatic inflammatory response. In addition, preventive or therapeutic administration of PX-478 combined with TNFα neutralizing antibody markedly improved LPS/D-GalN-induced ALF. Taken together, our data suggest that PX-478 administration leads to HIF-1α inhibition and decreased IL-1β secretion in macrophages, which represents a promising therapeutic strategy for inflammation-induced ALF.
2023-07-22·Current medical science
Catalpol Prevents Glomerular Angiogenesis Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products via Inhibiting Galectin-3.
作者: Wei-Xiang Sun ; Yu-Yan Gao ; Ying Cao ; Jin-Fu Lu ; Gao-Hong Lv ; Hui-Qin Xu
The main characteristics of diabetic nephropathy (DN) at the early stage are abnormal angiogenesis of glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) and macrophage infiltration. Galectin-3 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of DN via binding with its ligand, advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from Rehmannia glutinosa, has been found to ameliorate vascular inflammation, reduce endothelial permeability, and protect against endothelial damage in diabetic milieu. However, little is known about whether catalpol could exert an anti-angiogenesis and anti-inflammation effect induced by AGEs.
Mouse GECs (mGECs) and RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with different concentrations of AGEs (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 µg/mL) for different time (0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h) to determine the optimal concentration of AGEs and treatment time. Cells were treated with catalpol (10 µmol/L), GB1107 (1 µmol/L, galectin-3 inhibitor), PX-478 (50 µmol/L, HIF-1α inhibitor), adenovirus-green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) [3×107 plaque-forming unit (PFU)/mL] or Ad-galectin-3-GFP (2×108 PFU/mL), which was followed by incubation with 50 µg/mL AGEs. The levels of galectin-3, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and pro-angiogenic factors angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), tunica interna endothelial cell kinase-2 (Tie-2) were detected by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of these cells. The expression levels of galectin-3, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGFR2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in mGECs and those of galectin-3 and HIF-1α in RAW 264.7 macrophages were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. The rat DN model was established. Catalpol (100 mg/kg) or GB1107 (10 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically once a day for 12 weeks. Ad-galectin-3-GFP (6×107 PFU/mL, 0.5 mL) or Ad-GFP (6×106 PFU/mL, 0.5 mL) was injected into the tail vein of rats 48 h before the sacrifice of the animals. The expression of galectin-3, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and HIF-1α in renal cortices was analyzed by Western blotting. The expression of galectin-3, F4/80 (a macrophage biomarker), and CD34 (an endothelium biomarker) in renal cortices was detected by IF staining, and collagen accumulation by Masson staining.
The expression levels of galectin-3 and VEGFA were significantly higher in mGECs and RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with 50 µg/mL AGEs for 48 h than those in untreated cells. Catalpol and GB1107 could block the AGEs-induced proliferation of mGECs and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Over-expression of galectin-3 was found to reduce the inhibitory effect of catalpol on the proliferation of cells. Catalpol could significantly decrease the levels of Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2 released by AGEs-treated mGECs, which could be reversed by over-expression of galectin-3. Catalpol could significantly inhibit AGEs-induced expression of galectin-3, HIF-1α, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 in mGECs. The inhibitory effect of catalpol on galectin-3 in AGEs-treated mGECs was impaired by PX-478. Moreover, catalpol attenuated the AGEs-activated HIF-1α/galectin-3 pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages, which was weakened by PX-478. Additionally, catalpol significantly inhibited the expression of galectin-3, macrophage infiltration, collagen accumulation, and angiogenesis in the kidney of diabetic rats. Over-expression of galectin-3 could antagonize these inhibitory effects of catalpol.
Catalpol prevented the angiogenesis of mGECs and macrophage proliferation via inhibiting galectin-3. It could prevent the progression of diabetes-induced renal damage.