Trachoma Elimination Study by Focused Antibiotic (TESFA): The Impact of an Enhanced Antibiotic Treatment Regimen on Trachoma in Amhara, Ethiopia
The study population consists of all households residing in eligible kebeles (sub-districts) within districts in Amhara National Regional State which are identified as having a high prevalence of trachoma and infection measured from recent trachoma impact assessments. Within each study kebele, one village will be randomly selected to serve as the sentinel study site for that kebele. Once these villages are chosen, the study team will use government-provided census records, or perform a census in each village, and will randomly choose 50 children to serve as the sentinel children for the study. After the baseline visit, all kebeles will be randomized into one of the two treatment arms to either receive standard-or-care treatment, which is an annual community-wide mass drug administration (MDA), or the enhanced antibiotic treatment. Recruitment will take place at the selected children's household. Oral informed consent will be sought from village leader/chairmen before surveys are conducted in a village. Oral informed consent will then be obtained from household heads of those houses included in the study; and then from each participating individual. Oral consents will be obtained given the low literacy rates in rural Amhara. Data collection will occur at baseline, week 4, month 12, and month 24 in both arms of the study. A head of household will be asked a series of household level questions, which will be followed by a household-level census, where all consenting participants residing in the selected households will have their eyes examined for trachoma signs. This is a non-invasive procedure whereby a trained trachoma grader flips each eyelid and examines for trachoma signs. Lastly, the selected child and one randomly selected adult will have their right eye lid swabbed for evidence of trachoma infection. The total estimated respondent burden is 30 to 45 minutes.
Sauver Avec l'Azithromycine en Traitant Les Femmes Enceintes et Les Enfants (SANTE)
The double blind randomized controlled trial will assess the efficacy of oral azithromycin administered to pregnant women and/or infants during routine care in preventing stillbirths and mortality through 6-12 months of age in Mali, West Africa, where rates of infant and under five mortality are among the highest in the world.
Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin in the Treatment of Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Randomized,Open-label,Controlled Clinical Trial
This study investigates the efficay and tolerance of 5-days course of hydroxychloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin of patients with COVID-19 infection. The investigators will undertake a randomized, double-blind, controlled Trial in the region of Sousse Tunisia
100 项与 门冬氨酸阿奇霉素 相关的临床结果
100 项与 门冬氨酸阿奇霉素 相关的专利（医药）
项与 门冬氨酸阿奇霉素 相关的文献（医药）
2004-01-01·Antibiotiki i khimioterapiia = Antibiotics and chemoterapy [sic]
[Azithromycin levels in the chorion tissue within the first three months of the pregnancy term].
作者: Evtushenko, I D ; Iur'ev, S Iu ; Ogorodova, L M
The levels of azithromycin in the chorion tissue within the first 3 months of the pregnancy term (42 to 56 days post coitus) were determined. Three days after the use of azithromycin (Sumamed) the antibiotic concentration in the villi tissue was 0.065 to 0.26 mcg/mg (the average of 0.129 mcg/mg). The azithromycin concentration above 0.125 mcg/mg was detected in 38.5% of the women. The results confirmed the fact of significant azithromycin accumulation in the chorion tissue. The percentage of the azithromycin transplacental transfer within the above mentioned pregnancy term varied from 2.3 to 9.3 (the average of 4.6).
[Azithromycin (Sumamed) administration in empiric treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in upper digestive tract cancer patients].
作者: Szawłowski, Andrzej ; Szpakowski, Marek
Septic complications are the most frequent and potentially lethal complications among patients treated for tumours. Respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia, is third most frequent of all infections occurring among patients undergoing surgical treatment. Of great clinical and pharmaeconomical importance is rational therapy with antibiotics, which lowers the risk of septic complications and sometimes even saves patients' lives. Azithromycin proved to be effective cure for environmental pneumonia. There has been presented a preliminary research on effectiveness of azithromicin in the treatment of septic pneumonia among patients treated for upper digestive tract cancers.
2000-01-01·Antibiotiki i khimioterapiia = Antibiotics and chemoterapy [sic]
[Azithromycin (sumamed)--basic properties and therapy of community-acquired pneumonia].
WEDNESDAY, June 14, 2023 -- A bout of
can really put a damper on your vacation.
Here, experts break down what traveler’s diarrhea is, including its causes, symptoms and treatment, so you can get back to enjoying your trip as quickly as possible.
What is traveler's diarrhea?
Put simply, traveler’s diarrhea is frequent, loose, watery stools that occur after travel to an area with poor public hygiene. Unfortunately, it is the most common illness among travelers, according to
Johns Hopkins University
Traveler's diarrhea causes and risk factors
Although traveler's diarrhea could be the result of stress from traveling or a change in diet, it is usually caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. According to the
, you typically contract traveler’s diarrhea after ingesting food or water contaminated with germs from feces. People that are local to the area have often developed an immunity to the bacteria and are unaffected.
Traveler’s diarrhea symptoms
The Mayo Clinic lists the following symptoms:
Abrupt onset of three or more loose watery stools in a day
Urgent need to defecate
Severe symptoms indicate you should see a doctor; these include:
Diarrhea lasting longer than two days
Severe abdominal or rectal pain
Black or bloody stools
Fever over 102 degrees Fahrenheit
In children, traveler’s diarrhea can cause severe dehydration in a relatively short time; call your child’s health care provider if the following symptoms are occurring:
Fever over 102 degrees F
Dry mouth, crying without tears
Unusually sleepy, drowsy or unresponsive
Bloody stools or severe diarrhea
Decreased volume of urine, including fewer wet diapers in infants
How to lower the risk of traveler’s diarrhea
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
lists the following high-risk destinations for traveler’s diarrhea:
Asia (except Japan and South Korea)
When traveling to these areas, it is advised that you:
Choose your food and drink carefully
Drink only beverages in factory-sealed containers
Peel or wash all fruit and vegetables
Avoid food that has been sitting out at a buffet
Wash your hands frequently or use hand sanitizer
Brush your teeth with bottled water
Avoid swimming in contaminated water
How long does traveler’s diarrhea last?
Dr. Alexander Leung
Travelers’ Diarrhea: A Clinical Review
, “Travelers’ diarrhea is usually self-limited. If left untreated, approximately 50% of the patients are spontaneously cured in 48 hours and, in the majority of patients, the average duration of diarrhea is 4 to 5 days.”
He does add that “the clinical course tends to be more severe and prolonged in children, especially those younger than 2 years of age.”
Traveler’s diarrhea treatment
has several suggestions for treatments for traveler’s diarrhea:
Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) can reduce the duration or frequency of your stools, although it is not recommended for children or pregnant people.
Antibiotics may be prescribed for severe cases or if you have a compromised immune system. Your health care provider may request a stool sample to see what organism is causing your illness, so that they can prescribe the appropriate antibiotic. The most common antibiotics used for traveler's diarrhea are ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), azithromycin (Zmax), rifaximin (Xifaxan), metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitazoxanide (Alinia).
Antidiarrheals such as loperamide (Imodium) or atropine diphenoxylate (Lomotil) may reduce your symptoms, but they could also prolong the infection because they slow down the motility of your gut which may allow the infectious organism to stay in your bowel longer.
If you are infected, you should:
Hydrate frequently with low-sugar sport drinks or Pedialyte
If you can’t tolerate solid food, then try soups or popsicles
The BRAT diet may be helpful, which is bananas, rice, applesauce and toast
Eat small amounts at a time
Call your doctor for any of the severe symptoms above, or if symptoms last longer than two days
It is possible to be infected more than once while you are traveling, and therefore important to continue to use the preventive steps listed above.
Posted June 2023