2023-01-16·Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics
Discovery of potential phytochemicals as inhibitors of TcdB, a major virulence factors of Clostridioides difficile.
作者: Mubarak A Alamri ; Muhammad Hamza Tariq ; Muhammad Tahir Ul Qamar ; Alhumaidi B Alabbas ; Safar M Alqahtani ; Sajjad Ahmad
Clostridioides difficile is a gram-positive bacterium which is associated with different gastrointestinal related infections, and the numbers of cases related to it are continuously increasing in the past few years. Owing to high prevalence and development of resistance towards available antibiotics, it is required to develop new therapeutics to combat C. difficile infection. The current study was aimed to identify novel phytochemicals that could bind and inhibits the TcdB, an exotoxin which is required for the pathogenesis of bacteria, and hence can be considered as the future drug candidates against C. difficile. ∼2500 therapeutically important phyto-compounds were docked against the active sites of TcdB protein by using AutoDock-Vina software. The interactions between the ligands and the binding site of the top five docked complexes, based on the docking scores, were further elucidated by Molecular Dynamics Simulations of 500 ns, Molecular Mechanics Energies combined with the Poisson-Boltzmann and Surface Area (MMPBSA) or Generalized Born and Surface Area (MMGBSA), and WaterSwap Analysis. Findings of molecular docking suggested that natural compounds A183, A704, A1528, A2083, and A2129 with distinct chemical scaffolds are best docked in the binding site of TcdB and their bonding remained stable throughout the simulation studies of 500 ns. Compounds A2129 and A704 can be considered as prospective drug candidates against Clostridioides difficile, however, further wet lab experiments are needed to confirm our study.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
2021-06-09·Acta tropica3区 · 医学
Discovery and Validation of a Novel Target of Molluscicides against Oncomelania hupensis, the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum.
3区 · 医学
作者: Yuntian Xing ; Suyang Zhang ; Guoli Qu ; Jianrong Dai ; Jiakai Yao ; Bainian Feng
In this study, 196 strains of actinomycetes isolated from marshland soil samples were tested for molluscicidal activity against Oncomelania hupensis. Five strains demonstrated molluscicidal activity, of which the molluscicidal efficiency of Actinomycetes strain A183 was the maximum. After the fermentation supernatant of actinomycetes A183 was extracted with ethyl acetate (EWEA), the LC50 of the EWEA after leaching for 48 h and 72 h were 0.2688 and 0.2195 mg/L, respectively. The effect of EWEA on the key points of energy metabolism was determined. We noted that 1 mg/L of EWEA (A813) significantly reduced the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (P < 0.05), while no significant changes were observed in the activities of complexes II, III, and IV. In addition, EWEA (A813) could decrease the membrane potential of O. hupensis purified mitochondria in vitro. The LC50 of the 3 uncoupler (FCCP, DNP, and Tyrphostin A9) after immersion for 24 h were 0.065, 0.135, and 0.110 mg/L, respectively; LC50 after 48 h treatment was 0.064, 0.124, and 0.082 mg/L, respectively; LC50 after 72 h treatment was 0.063, 0.129, and 0.061 mg/L, respectively, and all uncoupler showed strong molluscicidal activities, demonstrating that the mitochondrial membrane potential uncoupling is a potential target for molluscicides against O. hupensis. Moreover, the molluscicidal active substance of strain A183 needs to be further isolated, purified, and structurally characterized considering its promising potential applications.
2009-05-12·Veterinary parasitology2区 · 农林科学
Predation of Ancylostoma spp. dog infective larvae by nematophagous fungi in different conidial concentrations.
2区 · 农林科学
作者: A S Maciel ; J V Araújo ; A K Campos ; E A Lopes ; L G Freitas
In the present work, it was evaluated the in vitro effect of 12 isolates from the fungal species Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia, Nematoctonus and Monacrosporium genera in different conidial concentrations on the capture of Ancylostoma spp. dog infective larvae (L(3)), on 2% water-agar medium at 25 degrees C, at the end of a period of 7 days. The concentrations used for each nematophagous fungus were 1000, 5000, 10,000, 15,000 and 20,000conidia/Petri dish plated with 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L(3). All nematode-trapping fungi isolates tested reduced the averages of the uncaptured Ancylostoma spp. L(3) recovered, with the increase of the fungal inoculum concentration, in comparison to the fungus-free control (p<0.05). The adhesive network producing species were better predators than the constricting ring or adhesive knob producing species. Duddingtonia flagrans (Isolate CG768) was the most effective, reducing the averages of the uncaptured Ancylostoma spp. L(3) recovered in 92.8%, 96.3%, 97.5%, 98.3% and 98.9%, respectively in five fungal inoculum concentrations established. Other effective nematophagous fungi were Arthrobotrys robusta (Isolate I31), which reduced the averages of the uncaptured Ancylostoma spp. L(3) recovered in 85.4%, 88.3%, 90.7%, 92.5% and 95.2%, and Arthrobotrys oligospora (Isolate A183), with reductions of 66.6%, 79.8%, 86.8%, 89.5% and 90.8%, respectively for both, in the five fungal inoculum concentrations established. No difference was found between Isolates A183 and I31 in the conidial concentrations of 15,000/Petri dish. Nematoctonus robustus (Isolate D1) and Arthrobotrys bronchophaga (Isolate AB) had the smallest percentages of reduction among the tested isolates and showed the lowest predacious activity. The Isolates CG768, I31 and A183 were considered potential biological control agents of Ancylostoma spp. dog free-living stages, being directly influenced by the fungal inoculum concentration.