In this study, first, a green and efficient NaOH/urea aqueous solution system was used to dissolve cellulose. Second, the resulting solution was mixed with sodium montmorillonite. Third, a cellulose/montmorillonite aerogel with a three-dimensional porous structure was prepared via a sol-gel process, solvent exchange and freeze-drying. The viscoelastic analysis results showed that the addition of montmorillonite accelerated the sol-gel process in the cellulose solution. During this process, montmorillonite adhered to the cellulose substrate surface via hydrogen bonding and then became embedded in the pore structure of the cellulose aerogel. As a result, the pore diameter of the aerogel decreased and the specific surface area of the aerogel increased. Furthermore, the addition of montmorillonite increased the compressive modulus and density of the cellulose aerogel and reduced volume shrinkage during the preparation process. In addition, the oil/water adsorption capacities of cellulose aerogels and cellulose/montmorillon aerogels were investigated.
2016-05-01·International Journal of Biological Macromolecules1区 · 化学
Characterization of chitosan-nanoclay bionanocomposite active films containing milk thistle extract
1区 · 化学
作者: Beigzadeh Ghelejlu, Sara ; Esmaiili, Mohsen ; Almasi, Hadi
Nowadays, bio-based and antioxidant active packaging is attracting significant attention as one of the preferred emerging technologies to prevent sensitive oxidation of foods. In this study, chitosan/nanoclay nanocomposite active films containing three different levels of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (1, 3 and 5% w/w based on chitosan) and Silybum marianum L. extract (SME) (0.5, 1 and 1.5% v/v) were prepared. The obtained films were characterized in terms of structural, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties as well as antioxidant behavior. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the exfoliated dispersion form of MMT nanolayers. Scanning electron microscopy images showed an increase in films' surface roughness by the addition of MMT. The results indicated that water vapor permeability and solubility of films reduced significantly (p<0.05) by incorporation of MMT and SME. The mechanical and optical properties of films were significantly affected by the content of MMT and SME (p<0.05). Antioxidant properties of the films also were improved by SME incorporation, suggesting that the formulated bionanocomposites could be considered as a promising antioxidant active packaging material.
2013-03-01·Archives of Oral Biology4区 · 医学
Characterization of a new TiF4 and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and its in vitro evaluation on inhibiting enamel demineralization
Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) is an effective but instable caries preventive agent. As the stability problems could be minimized through the use of drug carriers this study aimed to prepare and characterize a new TiF(4) nanoinclusion complex and to evaluate its potential in inhibiting enamel demineralization under pH cycling conditions. The TiF(4) nanosystems were prepared using β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and sodium montmorillonite (MMTNa). Bovine enamel blocks (n=48) with known surface microhardness (SMH), were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=12) and submitted to one of the following treatments: distilled deionized water (as negative control) and solutions containing 1% βCD, 1% TiF(4) and TiF(4):βCD. The solutions were blinded applied once on the blocks with a microbrush(®) on the surface for 1min before pH-cycling. After that, samples were reavaluated by SMH, %SMH loss, cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The inclusion complex of TiF(4):βCD offered better protection against demineralization in the subsurface. The SEM analysis showed that TiF(4) and TiF(4):βCD samples presented the most intact enamel than the control. The EDX analysis identified titanium in TiF(4) and TiF(4):βCD groups. TiF(4):βCD has higher potential on inhibiting demineralization in the inner enamel. TiF(4):βCD is a new alternative to TiF(4) stabilization in order to reduce enamel subsurface demineralization.