The synthetic triterpenoid TP-222 inhibits RANKL stimulation of osteoclastogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression
2区 · 医学
作者: Fava, Roy A. ; Elliott, Sarah ; Raymond, Lauren ; Mollmark, Jessica ; Hays, Ezra ; Honda, Tadashi ; Gribble, Gordon W. ; Sporn, Michael B. ; Vincenti, Matthew P.
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) promotes osteoclast differentiation from monocyte precursors by inducing a cohort of genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). A family of synthetic triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties was described to modulate differentiation in monocytic cell lineages. We therefore investigated the ability of the potent and bioavailable synthetic triterpenoid TP-222 to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and MMP-9 expression from monocytic precursor cells.
Osteoclast formation was assayed by staining for TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. MMP-9 expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and gel zymography. In vivo effects of TP-222 were assessed by daily intraperitoneal injection of 4-week-old mice for 7 days followed by measurement of osteoclast number and MMP-9 expression at the cartilage/bone junction of the epiphyseal growth plate.
RANKL promoted and TP-222 (300 nM) inhibited osteoclast formation in cultures of RAW264.7 cells or bone marrow-derived monocytes. RANKL also induced MMP-9 expression in RAW264.7 cells and this was reduced by concurrent or subsequent addition of TP-222. TP-222 treatment significantly reduced the mean number of osteoclasts present at the cartilage/bone interface compared to vehicle-injected control mice. Morphometric analyses of tissue sections showed that TP-222 treatment reduced the amount of immunoreactive MMP-9 present in both mononucleated pre-osteoclasts and osteoclasts.
Our data demonstrate that TP-222 inhibits osteoclast formation and MMP-9 expression in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that triterpenoids may be useful compounds for modulating bone resorption diseases.