Biofilm-related infections are serious problems in the Orthopedics field, and Staphylococcus aureus are the most popular causative agents of bacterial infections associated with arthroplasty. Several studies demonstrated a synergistic effect of the electric intervention (EI) and the antibiotic administration in killing bacteria in biofilm; however, a constant, long-time EI was needed. In the present study, the effective removal of biofilm formed with S. aureus on a titanium ring by multiple times of one minute-EI was observed and described.
A methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clinical isolate was used to form biofilm on a titanium ring. After applying a series of EI with various combinations of the frequencies and timings, the amount and principal components of biofilms were assessed with crystal violet staining, live bacterial cell count, and fluorescence staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy.
More than 60% biofilm removal was observed in the 2-time EI applied at 24 (1) and 72 (3) h (days) post bacterial exposure (PBE) and in the 3-time EI at 0 (0), 24 (1), and 72 (3) h (days) PBE, or at 24 (1), 48 (2), and 72 (3) h (days) PBE. The live bacterial cell numbers, the proportion of live and dead cells, and the amount of extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) of biofilm were similar with or without EI. It was assumed that an excess amount of the biofilm removal shown in the several EI was not attributed to the effect of the electrolysis.
The effective removal of biofilm was observed when multiple times 1 min EI was applied without any changes in the proportion of live and dead bacteria or the amount of EPS. The mechanisms to explain extra biofilm removal remain to be elucidated.
2022-08-04·International journal of pharmaceutics
Polymyxin E biomineralized and doxorubicin-loaded gold nanoflowers nanodrug for chemo-photothermal therapy.
作者: Jinfeng He ; Shuqian Yu ; Ziyi Ma ; Haotian Sun ; Qinghua Yang ; Zhiwei Liu ; Xuan Wang ; Xiaoyu Zhang ; Longgang Wang
Gold nanoparticles are a kind of good photothermal agents. However, gold nanoparticle photothermal agents have low photothermal conversion efficiency and low tumor inhibiting ability. To overcome these problems, polymyxin E (PE) biomineralized and doxorubicin-loaded gold nanoflowers (DOX-SH@AuNFs) nanodrug was synthesized by the green synthesis method using the biological antimicrobial peptide PE as a stabilizer and grower of crystal seed, and doxorubicin-thiol (DOX-SH) was further loaded on the gold nanoparticles through the Au-S bond. The final DOX-SH@AuNFs diplayed a wide absorption band in the UV-Vis spectra, and their photothermal conversion efficiency was 33.9%. Furthermore, the inhibition rate of DOX-SH@AuNFs on A549 cells was as high as 80.1% under the irradiation of near-infrared light at 808 nm. The tumor inhibition rate of DOX-SH@AuNFs was as high as 87.81% in vivo experiments. The high tumor suppression rate was attributed to the high photothermal conversion ability of DOX-SH@AuNFs and the delivery of doxorubicin. Taken together, the method of preparing DOX-SH@AuNFs provides a new idea for the treatment of cancer by photothermal therapy and chemotherapy synergistic system.
2022-07-01·Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography
[Simultaneous determination of nine estrogens in bullfrogs using filtered solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
作者: Qiaoli Qiu ; Xiaohong Chen ; Shengdong Pan ; Micong Jin
Due to the harmful effects of estrogens and their prevalence in animal foods, accurate analysis of estrogen levels in animal foods is imperative in order to effectively assess food safety risks and ensure consumer safety. Therefore, a rapid and accurate method based on PRiME HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge purification and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine nine estrogen residues in bullfrogs. The nine estrogens included estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (β-E), 17α-estradiol (α-E), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrone (EI), diethylstilbestrol (DES), dienestrol (DE), hexestrol (HEX), and dienestrol diacetate (DD). This study optimized the mobile phase system, extraction solvent, and SPE cartridges. Because estrogens present weak alkalinity, adding a small amount of alkaline substance to the mobile phase benefits estrogen ionization into the ionic state, eliminates the peak trailing phenomenon, and enhances the signal response of estrogens to improve sensitivity. Estrogens have one or more hydroxyl groups in their chemical structures. According to the principle of similar solubility, polar solvents are chosen as extraction solvents. Based on the complex matrix composition of meat samples, SPE is required for purification to reduce matrix effects. The liquid chromatographic conditions were optimized, and the 0.5 mmol/L ammonium fluoride aqueous solution-acetonitrile system as mobile phases showed better sensitivity than the ammonium acetate aqueous solution-acetonitrile system and the ammonia-acetonitrile system for the nine estrogens. When acetonitrile was used as the extraction solvent, the extraction rates of all nine estrogens exceeded those of methanol and ethyl acetate and increased by 15%-40%. By focusing on the matrix purification effect of four different SPE cartridges, the results showed that the matrix purification ability of the PRiME HLB cartridge outperformed that of the HLB, C18, and Silica SPE cartridges. After purification by the PRiME HLB cartridge, the recoveries of all compounds were in the range of 70%-125%, and the DD recovery was increased from 47% to 74%, whereas the HEX recovery was reduced from 180% to 123%. Therefore, the PRiME HLB SPE cartridge was selected as the cleanup material for this experiment. Finally, the sample was extracted using acetonitrile, purified by PRiME HLB SPE cartridge, and separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with a mobile phase of 0.5 mmol/L ammonium fluoride aqueous acetonitrile solution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was conducted in positive and negative ion switching mode (ESI+/ESI-) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning, and it was quantified using a matrix-matched external standard method. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the linear ranges were 0.5-100.0 μg/L for E3, β-E, α-E, EI, DE, HEX, and DD, and 1.0-100.0 μg/L for EE2 and DES. The nine estrogens showed good linearity in all linear ranges, with correlation coefficients of 0.9953-0.9994. The limits of detection were 0.17-0.33 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 μg/kg. The recoveries of the nine estrogens spiked at the three spiked levels of low (2.0 μg/kg), medium (10.0 μg/kg), and high (80.0 μg/kg) were 107.4%-125.3%, 67.0%-123.3%, and 65.1%-128.2%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were 1.9%-17.6%. The method established in this study was applied to detect nine estrogen residues in 50 commercially available bullfrog samples, and the results showed that HEX, EI, and DES were detected in few samples. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and reproducible, and can be used for the simultaneous, rapid and accurate determination of large quantities of samples.