AG1024, an IGF-1 receptor inhibitor, ameliorates renal injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy via the SOCS/JAK2/STAT pathway.
作者: Jianhua Liu ; Yun Zhang ; Min Liu ; Feng Shi ; Bo Cheng
Insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is the ligand for insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and the roles of IGF-1/IGF-1R in diabetic nephropathy (DN) are well-characterized previously. However, the biological functions of AG1024 (an IGF-1R inhibitor) in DN remain unknown. This study investigates the roles and related mechanisms of AG-1024 in DN. The experimental DN was established via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated with AG1024 (20 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. The 24 h proteinuria, blood glucose level, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured for biochemical analyses. The increase in 24 h proteinuria, blood glucose level, serum creatinine, and blood urea of DN rats were conspicuously abated by AG1024. After biochemical analyses, the renal tissue specimens were collected, and as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson staining, AG-1024 mitigated typical renal damage and interstitial fibrosis in DN rats. Then, the anti-inflammatory effect of AG-1024 was assessed by western blotting and ELISA. Mechanistically, AG-1024 upregulated SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression and decreased phosphorylated JAK2, STAT1, and STAT3, as shown by western blotting. Collectively, AG-1024 (an IGF-1R inhibitor) ameliorates renal injury in experimental DN by attenuating renal inflammation and fibrosis via the SOCS/JAK2/STAT pathway.
2022-10-26·International journal of molecular sciences
Protective Effects of the Chalcone-Based Derivative AN07 on Inflammation-Associated Myotube Atrophy Induced by Lipopolysaccharide.
Inflammation is a major cause of skeletal muscle atrophy in various diseases. 2-Hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (AN07) is a chalcone-based peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist with various effects, such as antiatherosclerosis, anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and neuroprotection. In this study, we examined the effects of AN07 on protein homeostasis pathway and mitochondrial function in inflammation-associated myotube atrophy induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We found that AN07 significantly attenuated NF-κB activation, inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and PGE2), Nox4 expression, and reactive oxygen species levels in LPS-treated C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, AN07 increased SOD2 expression and improved mitochondrial function, including mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. We also demonstrated that AN07 attenuated LPS-induced reduction of myotube diameter, MyHC expression, and IGF-1/IGF-1R/p-Akt-mediated protein synthesis signaling. Additionally, AN07 downregulated LPS-induced autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation molecules (LC3-II/LC3-I and degraded p62) and ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation molecules (n-FoxO1a/MuRF1/atrogin-1). However, the regulatory effects of AN07 on protein synthesis and degradation signaling were inhibited by the IGF-1R inhibitor AG1024 and the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. In addition, the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 attenuated the effects of AN07 against LPS-induced inflammation, oxidation, and protein catabolism. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AN07 possesses protective effects on inflammation-induced myotube atrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction.
2022-07-13·Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Fluconazole Is Neuroprotective via Interactions with the IGF-1 Receptor.
作者: Valerie Toodle ; Myoung-Hwa Lee ; Muzna Bachani ; April Ruffin ; Sneha Vivekanandhan ; Nasir Malik ; Tongguang Wang ; Tory P Johnson ; Avindra Nath ; Joseph P Steiner
There is a continuing unmet medical need to develop neuroprotective strategies to treat neurodegenerative disorders. To address this need, we screened over 2000 compounds for potential neuroprotective activity in a model of oxidative stress and found that numerous antifungal agents were neuroprotective. Of the identified compounds, fluconazole was further characterized. Fluconazole was able to prevent neurite retraction and cell death in in vitro and in vivo models of toxicity. Fluconazole protected neurons in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited efficacy against several toxic agents, including 3-nitropropionic acid, N-methyl D-aspartate, 6-hydroxydopamine, and the HIV proteins Tat and gp120. In vivo studies indicated that systemically administered fluconazole was neuroprotective in animals treated with 3-nitropropionic acid and prevented gp120-mediated neuronal loss. In addition to neuroprotection, fluconazole also induced proliferation of neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo. Fluconazole mediates these effects through upregulation and signaling via the insulin growth factor-1 receptor which results in decreased cAMP production and increased phosphorylation of Akt. Blockade of the insulin growth factor-1 receptor signaling with the selective inhibitor AG1024 abrogated the effects of fluconazole. Our studies suggest that fluconazole may be an attractive candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its protective properties against several categories of neuronal insults and its ability to spur neural progenitor cell proliferation.