A Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Multiple Rising Dose Regimens of Etamicastat (BIA 5-453) in Hypertensive Subjects
The purpose of this study was to characterise the plasma and urine pharmacokinetic profile of Etamicastat (BIA 5-453) and its metabolites after three multiple rising dose regimens of Etamicastat (BIA 5-453).
100 项与 Etamicastat hydrochloride 相关的专利（医药）
项与 Etamicastat hydrochloride 相关的文献（医药）
2020-08-04·Expert opinion on investigational drugs2区 · 医学
Dopamine β hydroxylase as a potential drug target to combat hypertension.
Despite a large number of commercially available drugs, hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases remain a global problem. It is thus imperative that novel drugs and therapeutic strategies are regularly identified, and alternative targets explored. Dopamine β hydroxylase (DBH), a key player in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, may provide a therapeutic opportunity and should be extensively explored as a target for potent anti-hypertensives. Inhibitors of DBH have been successful in combating hypertension, as evidenced by the outcome of clinical trials for etamicastat and zamicastat.
We shed light on the strategies employed to identify inhibitors of the enzyme and outline the advantages that the target might offer. Structural and functional details of the enzyme are described along with specific methodologies for drug discovery that were never utilized for the therapeutic target.
Effective inhibitors of the enzyme may be identified with computer-aided structure-based design. Adoption of new methodologies and the assessment of newly designed inhibitors in DBH-specific animal models will provide new, safe and cost-effective therapeutic opportunities.
2019-08-01·Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension3区 · 医学
Acute salt loading induces sympathetic nervous system overdrive in mice lacking salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1).
3区 · 医学
作者: Nuno Marques Pires ; Bruno Igreja ; Maria Paula Serrão ; Emanuel F Matias ; Eduardo Moura ; Tatiana António ; Filipa Lopes Campos ; Laura Brion ; Alejandro Bertorello ; Patrício Soares-da-Silva
Loss of salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) triggers an increase in blood pressure (BP) upon a chronic high-salt intake in mice. Here, we further addressed the possible early mechanisms that may relate to the observed rise in BP in mice lacking SIK1. SIK1 knockout (sik1-/-) and wild-type (sik1+/+) littermate mice were challenged with either a high-salt (8% NaCl) or control (0.3% NaCl) diet for 7 days. Systolic BP was significantly increased in sik1-/- mice after 7 days of high-salt diet as compared with sik1+/+ mice and to sik1-/- counterparts on a control diet. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system were assayed to investigate possible causes for the increase in BP in sik1-/- mice fed a 7-day high-salt diet. Although no differences in serum renin and angiotensin II levels were observed, a reduction in aldosterone serum levels was observed in mice fed a high-salt diet. Urinary L-DOPA and noradrenaline levels were significantly increased in sik1-/- mice fed a high-salt diet as compared with sik1-/- mice on a control diet. Similarly, the activity of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), the enzyme that converts dopamine to noradrenaline, was significantly increased in the adrenal glands of sik1-/- mice on a high-salt intake compared with sik1+/+ and sik1-/- mice on a control diet. Treatment with etamicastat (50 mg/kg/day), a peripheral reversible DβH inhibitor, administered prior to high-salt diet, completely prevented the systolic BP increase in sik1-/- mice. In conclusion, SIK1 activity is necessary to prevent the development of salt-induced high blood pressure and associated SNS overactivity.
2018-07-01·Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension3区 · 医学
Antihypertensive effect of etamicastat in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice.
3区 · 医学
作者: Ines Armando ; Laureano D Asico ; Xiaoyan Wang ; John E Jones ; Maria Paula Serrão ; Santiago Cuevas ; David K Grandy ; Patricio Soares-da-Silva ; Pedro A Jose
Abnormalities of the D2R gene (DRD2) play a role in the pathogenesis of human essential hypertension; variants of the DRD2 have been reported to be associated with hypertension. Disruption of Drd2 (D2-/-) in mice increases blood pressure. The hypertension of D2-/- mice has been related, in part, to increased sympathetic activity, renal oxidative stress, and renal endothelin B receptor (ETBR) expression. We tested in D2-/- mice the effect of etamicastat, a reversible peripheral inhibitor of dopamine-β-hydroxylase that reduces the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine and decreases sympathetic nerve activity. Blood pressure was measured in anesthetized D2-/- mice treated with etamicastat by gavage, (10 mg/kg), conscious D2-/- mice, and D2+/+ littermates, and mice with the D2R selectively silenced in the kidney, treated with etamicastat in the drinking water (10 mg/kg per day). Tissue and urinary catecholamines and renal expression of selected G protein-coupled receptors, enzymes related to the production of reactive oxygen species, and sodium transporters were also measured. Etamicastat decreased blood pressure both in anesthetized and conscious D2-/- mice and mice with renal-selective silencing of D2R to levels similar or close to those measured in D2+/+ littermates. Etamicastat decreased cardiac and renal norepinephrine and increased cardiac and urinary dopamine levels in D2-/- mice. It also normalized the increased renal protein expressions of ETBR, NADPH oxidase isoenzymes, and urinary 8-isoprostane, as well as renal NHE3 and NCC, and increased the renal expression of D1R but not D5R in D2-/- mice. In conclusion, etamicastat is effective in normalizing the increased blood pressure and some of the abnormal renal biochemical alterations of D2-/- mice.