GS-2: A Novel Broad-Spectrum Agent for Environmental Microbial Control.
作者: Alyce J Mayfosh ; Zoe I Day ; Nathan B Unsworth ; Chun-Qiang Liu ; Ruchi Gupta ; Soraya Haynes ; Rebecca Abraham ; Sam Abraham ; Zo L Shaw ; Sumeet Walia ; Aaron Elbourne ; Mark D Hulett ; Thomas F Rau
The environmental control of microbial pathogens currently relies on compounds that do not exert long-lasting activity on surfaces, are impaired by soil, and contribute to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. This study presents the scientific development and characterization of GS-2, a novel, water-soluble ammonium carboxylate salt of capric acid and L-arginine that demonstrates activity against a range of bacteria (particularly Gram-negative bacteria), fungi, and viruses. In real-world surface testing, GS-2 was more effective than a benzalkonium chloride disinfectant at reducing the bacterial load on common touch-point surfaces in a high-traffic building (average 1.6 vs. 32.6 CFUs recovered from surfaces 90 min after application, respectively). Toxicology testing in rats confirmed GS-2 ingredients were rapidly cleared and posed no toxicities to humans or animals. To enhance the time-kill against Gram-positive bacteria, GS-2 was compounded at a specific ratio with a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol, to produce a water-based antimicrobial solution. This GS-2 with thymol formulation could generate a bactericidal effect after five minutes of exposure and a viricidal effect after 10 min of exposure. Further testing of the GS-2 and thymol combination on glass slides demonstrated that the compound retained bactericidal activity for up to 60 days. Based on these results, GS-2 and GS-2 with thymol represent a novel antimicrobial solution that may have significant utility in the long-term reduction of environmental microbial pathogens in a variety of settings.
A pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 isolated from racing pigeon as an inactivated vaccine candidate provides effective protection.
作者: Yajie Zhang ; Weifan Wang ; Yongkun Li ; Jinming Liu ; Wenbin Wang ; Jun Bai ; Zengqi Yang ; Haijin Liu ; Sa Xiao
Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1), a variant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), causes severe Newcastle disease (ND) in pigeons. However, there is no PPMV-1 vaccine available worldwide. In this study, a strain of PPMV-1 was isolated from outbreaks in a vaccinated racing pigeon (Columbia livia) loft in China, namely, PPMV-1/pigeon/Gansu/China/02/2020 (GS02). Experimental infection with GS02 showed mortality rates of 100% and 87.50% in 4- and 12-week-old pigeons, respectively, suggesting that GS02 is virulent and more sensitive to young pigeons. The whole genome of GS02 determined the fusion (F) protein possessing virulence cleavage site 112RRQKRF117. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GS02 was a subgenotype VI.220.127.116.11.2 (VIk) of Class II NDV and more closely related to the JS/06/20/Pi (MW271791) strain, but it was far from the genetic distance from the commercial vaccine chicken-origin La Sota strain. Using inactivated GS02 as a vaccine candidate and inactivated vaccine La Sota to immunize the pigeons, both of them provided complete protection against GS02 challenge. The GS02 vaccine candidate induced higher antibody titers than the La Sota vaccine, and cross-reactivity testing showed antigenically slight differences between GS02 and La Sota. These results indicated that the GS02 candidate could be a potential pigeon-derived vaccine for the prevention and control of PPMV-1 in pigeons.
2022-04-26·Foods (Basel, Switzerland)2区 · 农林科学
Toxicity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phytochemicals of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves Cultivated in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is one of the most common aromatic herbs, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and is used extensively to add aroma and flavor to food. The leaves, both in fresh and dried form, are used as a culinary ingredient in different cultures. O. basilicum is also famous for its therapeutic potential and preservation effects. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of basil at three different growth stages (GS), i.e., GS-1 (58 days of growth), GS-2 (69 days of growth), and GS-3 (93 days of growth) using the brine shrimp lethality assay. The results revealed that cytotoxicity was influenced by GS and the concentration of extracts. Aqueous extracts of basil at a concentration of 10 to 1000 µg/mL did not show notable toxicity. The lowest mortality rate, i.e., 8.9%, was recorded for GS-2 at the highest tested dose of basil extracts. The mortality rate at GS-1, GS-2, and GS-3 was found to be 26.7 ± 3.34%, 8.91 ± 0.10%, and 16.7 ± 0.34%, respectively, at 1000 µg/mL. GS-2 basil powder with the lowest toxicological risk was extracted with different solvents, viz., n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol, and water. The highest concentration of plant secondary metabolites including total phenolic acid, flavonoids, and tannin content was observed in ethanol extracts. Ethanol extracts also exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP and H2O2 assays. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis presented ethanol extracts of basil as a promising source of known health-promoting and therapeutic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, liquiritigenin, and umbelliferone. The results suggest basil, a culinary ingredient, as a potential source of bioactive compounds which may offer an array of health promoting and therapeutic properties.