A Phase IIb Study to Investigate the Treatment-Sparing Effects of AEROVANT™ AER 001 Inhalation Powder in Asthma Patients Not Fully Controlled on Current Therapy
A multi-center, Phase IIb, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group, repeated-dose study in male and female patients with moderate to severe asthma in which patients will be stabilized on AEROVANT then doses of inhaled corticosteroids and LABA will be tapered. The hypothesis is that AEROVANT will improve asthma symptom control and decrease the need for inhaled corticosteroids and LABA, thus improving exacerbation incidence compared to placebo. Incidence of asthma exacerbation is the primary endpoint.
A Phase 1 Safety and Pharmacokinetics Study of AER 001 Administered as a Dry Powder in Asthmatic Subjects
This is a single centre, single dose pharmacokinetic/safety study in male and female asthmatic subjects. Subjects will receive a single dose of 10 mg of AER 001 administered as a dry powder using a handheld device. The goals of this study are to understand the pharmacokinetics and safety of AER 001 administered as a dry powder in mild to moderate asthmatics.
A Phase 2a Study to Investigate the Effects of Repeated Administration of AeroDerm in Subjects With Atopic Eczema
The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of AERODERM (also known as pitrakinra, AER 001, BAY 16-9996) on Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score in subjects with moderate to severe atopic eczema
Design of Glycoengineered IL-4 Antagonists Employing Chemical and Biosynthetic Glycosylation.
作者: Schmitz, Werner ; Kuhn, Eva-Maria ; Fiebig, Juliane E ; Mueller, Thomas D ; Mayer, Dominik S ; Filbeck, Sebastian ; Thomas, Sarah ; Gropp, Roswitha ; Krischke, Markus
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) plays a key role in atopic diseases. It coordinates T-helper cell differentiation to subtype 2, thereby directing defense toward humoral immunity. Together with Interleukin-13, IL-4 further induces immunoglobulin class switch to IgE. Antibodies of this type activate mast cells and basophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes, which release pro-inflammatory mediators accounting for the typical symptoms of atopic diseases. IL-4 and IL-13 are thus major targets for pharmaceutical intervention strategies to treat atopic diseases. Besides neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, IL-13, or its receptors, IL-4 antagonists can present valuable alternatives. Pitrakinra, an Escherichia coli-derived IL-4 antagonist, has been evaluated in clinical trials for asthma treatment in the past; however, deficits such as short serum lifetime and potential immunogenicity among others stopped further development. To overcome such deficits, PEGylation of therapeutically important proteins has been used to increase the lifetime and proteolytic stability. As an alternative, glycoengineering is an emerging strategy used to improve pharmacokinetics of protein therapeutics. In this study, we have established different strategies to attach glycan moieties to defined positions in IL-4. Different chemical attachment strategies employing thiol chemistry were used to attach a glucose molecule at amino acid position 121, thereby converting IL-4 into a highly effective antagonist. To enhance the proteolytic stability of this IL-4 antagonist, additional glycan structures were introduced by glycoengineering utilizing eucaryotic expression. IL-4 antagonists with a combination of chemical and biosynthetic glycoengineering could be useful as therapeutic alternatives to IL-4 neutralizing antibodies already used to treat atopic diseases.
2023-01-01·Journal of asthma and allergy
Effect of Biologic Therapies on Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Allergic Response: A Systematic Literature Review.
作者: Molfino, Nestor A ; Brightling, Christopher E ; Simpson, Lisa J ; Ambrose, Christopher S ; O'Byrne, Paul M ; Spahn, Joseph D ; Martin, Neil ; Hallstrand, Teal S
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a key feature of asthma. Biologic therapies used to treat asthma target specific components of the inflammatory pathway, and their effects on AHR can provide valuable information about the underlying disease pathophysiology. This review summarizes the available evidence regarding the effects of biologics on allergen-specific and non-allergen-specific airway responses in patients with asthma.
We conducted a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, including risk-of-bias assessment. PubMed and Ovid were searched for studies published between January 1997 and December 2021. Eligible studies were randomized, placebo-controlled trials that assessed the effects of biologics on AHR, early allergic response (EAR) and/or late allergic response (LAR) in patients with asthma.
Thirty studies were identified for inclusion. Bronchoprovocation testing was allergen-specific in 18 studies and non-allergen-specific in 12 studies. Omalizumab reduced AHR to methacholine, acetylcholine or adenosine monophosphate (3/9 studies), and reduced EAR (4/5 studies) and LAR (2/3 studies). Mepolizumab had no effect on AHR (3/3 studies), EAR or LAR (1/1 study). Tezepelumab reduced AHR to methacholine or mannitol (3/3 studies), and reduced EAR and LAR (1/1 study). Pitrakinra reduced LAR, with no effect on AHR (1/1 study). Etanercept reduced AHR to methacholine (1/2 studies). No effects were observed for lebrikizumab, tocilizumab, efalizumab, IMA-638 and anti-OX40 ligand on AHR, EAR or LAR; benralizumab on LAR; tralokinumab on AHR; and Ro-24-7472 on AHR or LAR (all 1/1 study each). No dupilumab or reslizumab studies were identified.
Omalizumab and tezepelumab reduced EAR and LAR to allergens. Tezepelumab consistently reduced AHR to methacholine or mannitol. These findings provide insights into AHR mechanisms and the precise effects of asthma biologics. Furthermore, findings suggest that tezepelumab broadly targets allergen-specific and non-allergic forms of AHR, and the underlying cells and mediators involved in asthma.
2017-12-01·Journal of translational medicine2区 · 医学
Design and validation of a disease network of inflammatory processes in the NSG-UC mouse model
2区 · 医学
作者: Siebeck, Matthias ; Jodeleit, Henrika ; Palamides, Pia ; Wolf, Eckhard ; Mueller, Thomas ; Beigel, Florian ; Gropp, Roswitha
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a highly progressive inflammatory disease that requires the interaction of epithelial, immune, endothelial and muscle cells and fibroblasts. Previous studies suggested two inflammatory conditions in UC-patients: 'acute' and 'remodeling' and that the design of a disease network might improve the understanding of the inflammatory processes. The objective of the study was to design and validate a disease network in the NOD-SCID IL2rγnull (NSG)-UC mouse model to get a better understanding of the inflammatory processes.
Leukocytes were isolated from the spleen of NSG-UC mice and subjected to flow cytometric analysis. RT-PCR and RNAseq analysis were performed from distal parts of the colon. Based on these analyses and the effects of interleukins, chemokines and growth factors described in the literature, a disease network was designed. To validate the disease network the effect of infliximab and pitrakinra was tested in the NSG-UC model. A clinical- and histological score, frequencies of human leukocytes isolated from spleen and mRNA expression levels from distal parts of the colon were determined.
Analysis of leukocytes isolated from the spleen of challenged NSG-UC mice corroborated CD64, CD163 and CD1a expressing CD14+ monocytes, CD1a expressing CD11b+ macrophages and HGF, TARC, IFNγ and TGFß1 mRNA as inflammatory markers. The disease network suggested that a proinflammatory condition elicited by IL-17c and lipids and relayed by cytotoxic T-cells, Th17 cells and CD1a expressing macrophages and monocytes. Conversely, the remodeling condition was evoked by IL-34 and TARC and promoted by Th2 cells and M2 monocytes. Mice benefitted from treatment with infliximab as indicated by the histological- and clinical score. As predicted by the disease network infliximab reduced the proinflammatory response by suppressing M1 monocytes and CD1a expressing monocytes and macrophages and decreased levels of IFNγ, TARC and HGF mRNA. As predicted by the disease network inflammation aggravated in the presence of pitrakinra as indicated by the clinical and histological score, elevated frequencies of CD1a expressing macrophages and TNFα and IFNγ mRNA levels.
The combination of the disease network and the NSG-UC animal model might be developed into a powerful tool to predict efficacy or in-efficacy and potential mechanistic side effects.