Activated carbon (AC) from sugarcane bagasse was prepared using dry chemical activation with KOH. It was then subjected to a high-energy ball milling (HEBM) treatment under various milling speeds (600, 1200 and 1800 rpm) to produce AC nanoparticles from micro-size particles. The AC samples after the HEBM treatment exhibited reduced particle sizes, increased mesopore volume and a rich surface oxygen content, which contribute to higher pseudocapacitance. Notably, different HEBM speeds were used to find a good electrochemical performance. As a result, the AC/BM12 material, subjected to HEBM at 1200 rpm for 30 min, exhibited the highest specific capacitance, 257 F g-1, at a current density 0.5 A g-1. This is about 2.4 times higher than that of the AC sample. Moreover, the excellence capacitance retention of this sample was 93.5% after a 3000-cycle test at a current density of 5 A g-1. Remarkably, a coin cell electrode assembly was fabricated using the AC/BM12 material in a 1 M LiPF6 electrolyte. It exhibited a specific capacitance of 110 F g-1 with a high energy density of 27.9 W h kg-1.
2014-10-01·Journal of Immunology2区 · 医学
Novel CD8 T Cell Alloreactivities in CCR5-Deficient Recipients of Class II MHC Disparate Kidney Grafts
2区 · 医学
作者: Ishii, Daisuke ; Rosenblum, Joshua M. ; Nozaki, Taiji ; Schenk, Austin D. ; Setoguchi, Kiyoshi ; Su, Charles A. ; Gorbacheva, Victoria ; Baldwin, William M. III ; Valujskikh, Anna ; Fairchild, Robert L.
Recipient CD4 T regulatory cells inhibit the acute T cell-mediated rejection of renal allografts in wild-type mice. The survival of single class II MHC-disparate H-2(bm12) renal allografts was tested in B6.CCR5(-/-) recipients, which have defects in T regulatory cell activities that constrain alloimmune responses. In contrast to wild-type C57BL/6 recipients, B6.CCR5(-/-) recipients rejected the bm12 renal allografts. However, donor-reactive CD8 T cells rather than CD4 T cells were the primary effector T cells mediating rejection. The CD8 T cells induced to bm12 allografts in CCR5-deficient recipients were reactive to peptides spanning the 3 aa difference in the I-A(bm12) versus I-A(b) β-chains presented by K(b) and D(b) class I MHC molecules. Allograft-primed CD8 T cells from CCR5-deficient allograft recipients were activated during culture either with proinflammatory cytokine-stimulated wild-type endothelial cells pulsed with the I-A(bm12) peptides or with proinflammatory cytokine-simulated bm12 endothelial cells, indicating their presentation of the I-A(bm12) β-chain peptide/class I MHC complexes. In addition to induction by bm12 renal allografts, the I-A(bm12) β-chain-reactive CD8 T cells were induced in CCR5-deficient, but not wild-type C57BL/6, mice by immunization with the peptides. These results reveal novel alloreactive CD8 T cell specificities in CCR5-deficient recipients of single class II MHC renal allografts that mediate rejection of the allografts.
2009-01-15·Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis3区 · 医学
Quantitative solid-state analysis of three solid forms of ranitidine hydrochloride in ternary mixtures using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction
3区 · 医学
作者: Chieng, Norman ; Rehder, Soenke ; Saville, Dorothy ; Rades, Thomas ; Aaltonen, Jaakko
The aim of the study was to develop a reliable quantification procedure for mixtures of three solid forms of ranitidine hydrochloride using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis. The effect of mixing methods of the calibration samples on the calibration model quality was also investigated. Thirteen ternary samples of form 1, form 2 and the amorphous form of ranitidine hydrochloride were prepared in triplicate to build a calibration model. The ternary samples were prepared by three mixing methods (a) manual mixing (MM) and ball mill mixing (BM) using two (b) 5 mm (BM5) or (c) 12 mm (BM12) balls for 1 min. The samples were analyzed with XRPD and Raman spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to study the effect of mixing method, while partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the quantification models. PCA score plots showed that, in general, BM12 resulted in the narrowest sample clustering indicating better sample homogeneity. In the quantification models, the number of PLS factors was determined using cross-validation and the models were validated using independent test samples with known concentrations. Multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) without scaling gave the best PLS regression model for XPRD, and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation with centering gave the best model for Raman spectroscopy. Using PLS regression, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of the best models were 5.0-6.9% for XRPD and 2.5-4.5% for Raman spectroscopy. XRPD and Raman spectroscopy in combination with PLS regression can be used to quantify the amount of single components in ternary mixtures of ranitidine hydrochloride solid forms. Raman spectroscopy gave better PLS regression models than XRPD, allowing a more accurate quantification.
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